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Moulding
Moulding In Architecture And The Decorative Arts, A Varia Tion And Modelling Of A Surface In A Band, Approximately Continu Ous, Whose Profile Or Section Is Either Always The Same, Or Whose Changes Are Rhythmically Repeated. Mouldings Are Usually Classi Fied And Named According To Their Profiles, In Three General ...

Mound
Mound, Now Used In The Sense Of A Pile Or Heap Of Earth, Especially Such A Pile Raised Over A Grave Or Burial-place, A Tumulus, Or As A Means Of Defence, And So Used To Translate Lat. Agger. The Word Is Obscure In Origin, But Was Early Influenced By "mount," ...

Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon, The Former Home Of George Washing Ton, In Fairfax County, Virginia, U.s.a., On The Potomac River, 15 M. Below Washington, D.c. The Mansion-house, Which Is The Centre Of Interest, Stands On A Bluff Overlooking The River. The House Is Built Of Wood, But The Siding Is Of Wide ...

Mountain Warfare
Mountain Warfare. The Difficulties Attending The Prosecution Of A Campaign In Mountains Arise Primarily From The Physical Features Of The Theatre Of Operations ; And Secondly, In A Marked Degree, From The Effect Those Features Have In Moulding The Character Of The Inhabitants. Only The Physically Fit Survive Early Childhood. ...

Mountain Warfare In Civilised
Mountain Warfare In Civilised Countries In The Mountainous Parts Of Europe The General Principles Of The Art Of War Lose None Of Their Force. The Conduct Of Operations Must Be Based Upon The Same Strategical And Tactical Theories As Hold Good In The Plain. In Practice, However, Both Strategy And ...

Mountain Warfare In Countries
Mountain Warfare In Countries The Inhabitants Of This Area Possess All The Characteristics Noted Above. As Regards Supply During Operations, They Normally Carry Seven To Io Days' Food On Them, And Consequently Are Un Troubled By Anxiety About Their Line Of Communication. They Are Armed Only With Rifles And Knives. ...

Mountaineering
Mountaineering, The Art Of Moving About Safely In Mountain Regions Avoiding The Dangers Incidental To Them And Attaining High Points Difficult Of Access. The Basis Of It Is Dis Covery, And In Its Methods It Bears A Strong Likeness To Navi Gation, Demanding Many Of The Same Qualities, Such As ...

Mouse
Mouse, In Its Original Sense Probably The Name Of The House Mouse (mus Musculus), The Type Of The Genus Mus And Of The Family Muridae. The Distinctive Characters Of The Typical Mice, I.e., Those Included In The Genus Mus, Are Dealt With In The Article Rodentia. With The Exception Of ...

Mouth And Salivary Glands
Mouth And Salivary Glands. The Mouth, In Anatomy, Is An Oval Cavity At The Beginning Of The Alimentary Canal In Which The Food Is Masticated. The Opening Is Situated Between The Lips, And At Rest Its Width Reaches To The First Premolar Tooth On Each Side. The Lips Are Fleshy ...

Mowbray
Mowbray, The Name Of An Anglo-norman Baronial House, Derived From Montbray (manche) In Normandy South Of St. Lo. It Was Founded At The Conquest By Geoffrey (de Montbray), Bishop Of Coutances. His Nephew Robert, Who Rebelled With Him Against William Rufus On The Conqueror's Death, Was Made, After Their Reconciliation, ...

Mozambique
Mozambique, A Town Of Portuguese East Africa, Till 1907 Capital Of The Province Of Mozambique, And The Seat Of A Roman Catholic Bishopric In The Province Of Goa, Is In 15° 4' S., 44' E., 7,157 M. From Southampton, And 175 M. From Ibo. The Town Occupies The Whole Of ...

Mukden
Mukden, The Capital Of Fengtien Province, The Seat Of Government Of The "three Eastern Provinces," I.e., Manchuria, And The Ancestral Capital Of The Manchu Dynasty Which Ruled China From 1644 To 1911 (4i° 55' N. And 123° 25' E.). It Is Known To The Chinese As Fengtien Or Shengking ("abundant ...

Mulberry
Mulberry, Botanically Morus (family Moraceae), A Genus Of 12 Species Growing In The Temperate Regions Of The Northern Hemisphere And In The Mountains Of The Tropics. They Are Decidu Ous Trees Or Shrubs With Alternate, Toothed, Often Three-lobed Leaves And Unisexual Flowers In Catkin-like Inflorescences. The Black Mulberry (m. Nigra), ...

Mull
Mull, The Largest Island Of The Inner Hebrides, Argyllshire, Scotland. Pop. (1921) 3,389. It Is Bounded On The West And South By The Atlantic, On The North And North-east By The Sound Of Mull, And On The East And South-east By The Firth Of Lorne. Its Greatest Length Is 27 ...

Mullet
Mullet, The Name Of Two Different Kinds Of Fishes, Dis Tinguished As Red Mullets And Grey Mullets. Red Mullets (genus Mullus) Are Marine Fishes, With Two Short Dorsal Fins, The First Composed Of Feeble Spines, The Second Of Branched Rays. The Body Is Covered With Large Thin Scales. The Anterior ...

Mullite
Mullite (named From The Island Of Mull, Where It Was First Recognized As A Rock Mineral), A Mineral Of The Composition Crystallizing In The Rhombic System. The Mineral Shows An Extraordinary Similarity In Its Physical Properties To Sillimanite (q.v.) As Is Indicated By The Following Data: The Refractive Indices Of ...

Multan Or Mooltan
Multan Or Mooltan, A City, District And Division Of British India, In The Punjab. The City Is 4 M. From The Left Bank Of The Chenab, Near The Ancient Confluence Of The Ravi With That River. Pop. (1931), 119,457. The City Is Enclosed On Three Sides By A Wall, But ...

Multituberculata
Multituberculata, An Order Of Extinct Mammals. Their Relationships To Other Groups Are Best Considered By Giv Ing A Brief Outline Of The Mesozoic Mammals. Although The Cenozoic Era Is Popularly Known As The Age Of Mammals, About Two-thirds Of Mammalian Evolution Took Place During The Mesozoic. The Remains Of Mesozoic ...

Mummy
Mummy, A Dead Body Preserved By The Ancient Egyptian Or Other Method Of Embalming (persian Mumiai, Wax Later Mean Ing Pitch Or Asphalt). Tended Position And The Internal Organs Were Removed Through An Incision In The Left Flank, The Vacant Cavity Being Filled With Linen And Resin. The Outer Wrappings ...

Muncie
Muncie, A City Of Eastern Indiana, U.s.a., 54 M. N.e. Of Indianapolis, On The White River, At An Altitude Of 950 Ft.; The County Seat Of Delaware County. It Has A Municipal Airport Ii M. From The Business District, And Is Served By The Big Four, The Chesapeake And Ohio, ...

Mundas
Mundas. The Munda, (munda) Family Is The Least Numer Ous Of The Linguistic Families Of India. It Comprises Several Dialects Spoken In The Two Chota Nagpur Plateaux, The Adjoining Districts Of Madras And The Central Provinces, And In The Mahadeo Hills. Santali, Mundari, Bhumij, Birhar, Kada, Ha, Asuri And Korwa ...

Mundas
Mundas. The Munda (mmtc/d) Family Is The Least Numer Ous Of The Linguistic Families Of India. It Comprises Several Dialects Spoken In The Two Chota Nagpur Plateaux, The Adjoining Districts Of Madras And The Central Provinces, And In The Mahadeo Hills. Santa1i, Munclari, Bhumij, Birhar, Koda, Ho, Asuri And Korwa ...

Munday
Munday (or Monday), Anthony (c. 1553-1633), English Dramatist And Miscellaneous Writer, Son Of Christopher Monday, A London Draper, Was Born In 1553-1554. He Had Already Appeared On The Stage When In 1576 He Bound Himself Apprentice For Eight Years To John Allde, The Stationer, But In 1578 He Was In ...

Munich
Munich (munchen), Capital Of Bavaria, And The Fourth Largest Town In The German Reich, Stands On The River Isar, 25 M. N. Of The Foot-hills Of The Alps, About Midway Between Strasbourg And Vienna. Pop. (1935) 735,388. Owing To Its Lofty Site (1, Loo Ft.), The Climate Is Changeable, And ...

Municipal Trading
Municipal Trading. Trading, Either Monopolist Or In Competition With Private Enterprise, E.g., Municipal Authorities, Is Not Properly Defined As A Branch Of Socialism Though The Social Ist Parties Alone Have Advocated It As Part Of A General Policy. Certain Of The Most Remarkable Experiments Have Been Under Taken Under Anti-socialist ...

Municipium
Municipium, The Term Applied Primarily To A Status, A Certain Relation Between Individuals Or Communities And The Roman State (lat. Menus, A Duty Or Privilege) ; Subsequently To A Community Standing In Such A Relation To Rome. Early History.—the Status Had Its Origin In The Conferment Of Citizenship Upon Tusculum ...

Munster
Munster, A Town Of Germany, Capital Of The Province Of Westphalia, Lies In A Sandy Plain On The Dortmund-ems Canal, At The Junction Of Several Railways, 107 M. S.w. Of Bremen On The Line To Cologne. Pop. (1933) 122,253. Miinster Is First Men Tioned About The Year 800, When Charlemagne ...

Murad Hi 1546 1595
Murad Hi. (1546-1595), Ottoman Sultan, Was The Eldest Son Of Selim Ii., And Succeeded His Father In 1574. His Accession Marks The Definite Beginning Of The Decline Of The Ottoman Power, Which Had Only Been Maintained Under Selim Ii. By The Genius Of The All-powerful Grand Vizier Mahommed Sokolli. For, ...

Murad I
Murad I., Surnamed Khudavendighiar Otto Man Sultan, Was The Son Of Orkhan And The Greek Princess Nilofer, And Succeeded His Father In 1359. He Was The First Turkish Monarch To Obtain A Definite Footing In Europe And His Main Ob Ject Throughout His Career Was To Extend The European Dominions ...

Murad Iv 1611 1640
Murad Iv. (1611-1640), Ottoman Sultan, Was The Son Of Sultan Ahmed I., And Succeeded His Uncle Mustafa I. In 1623. For The First Nine Years Of His Reign His Youth Prevented Him From Taking More Than An Observer's Part In Affairs. But The Lessons Thus Learnt Were Sufficiently Striking To ...

Mural Painting
Mural Painting Concerns That Branch Of Art Which Has For Its Object The Covering Or "dressing" Of A Building So That Its Purpose May Be "sweetened" Or Intensified By The Decoration. This Decoration, Therefore, Must Be Considered From Two Points Of View : Fitness And Adornment. Fitness Prescribes The Nature; ...

Murcia
Murcia, A Maritime Province Of South-eastern Spain. Pop. (1930), Area, 4,453 Sq.m. It Was The First Span Ish Possession Of The Carthaginians, And The Romans Included It In Hispania Tarraconensis. Under The Moors The Province Was Known As Todmir, Which Included, According To Edrisi, The Cities Murcia, Orihuela, Cartagena, Lorca, ...

Murcia_2
Murcia, The Capital Of The Spanish Province Of Murcia; On The River Segura, 25 M. W. Of The Mediterranean Sea. Pop. (1930), 159,825. Murcia Was A Town Before The Punic Wars, But Its Name Then, And Under Roman Rule, Is Not Known, Though Some Have Tried To Identify It With ...

Murmansk
Murmansk, A Port On The Kola Inlet Of The Murmansk Coast Of The Barents Sea In The Russian S.f.s.r. In 69° 1o' N., 33° 3o' E. Pop. (1926) 8,777. In 1916 It Was Merely A Few Log Huts, But The Completion Of A Railway Line Linking It With Leningrad Has ...

Murshidabad
Murshidabad, A Town And District Of British India, In The Presidency Division Of Bengal. The Administrative Headquar Ters Of The District Are At Berhampore (q.v.). The Town Of Mur Shidabad Is On The Left Bank Of The Bhagirathi, An Old And Sacred Channel Of The Ganges. Pop. (1931) 9.483. It ...

Muscat
Muscat, A Town On The South-east Coast Of Arabia, Capital Of The Independent State Of Oman. It Commands The Entrance To The Persian Gulf. In Geographical Position It Is Isolated From The Interior Of The Peninsula As The Mountains Rise Behind It In A Rugged Wall. It Is Only From ...

Muscle Shoals
Muscle Shoals, A Name Given To A Section Of The Ten Nessee River, Approximately 37 M. Long, Above Florence, Alabama. In This Distance The River Drops 132 Ft. When It Is Discharging Its Average Flow. The Above Section Of The River Is Made Up Of Rapids And Connecting Pools That ...

Muscle And Muscular Exercise
Muscle And Muscular Exercise. Muscle Makes Up A Considerable, Often A Major Fraction Of The Body, And Many Of The Other Functions Are Devoted To Its Service. It Con Sists Essentially Of Fibres, Complete Living Units Which Are Fre Quently Of Considerable Length And About 0.05mm. In Diameter. These Fibres ...

Muscovite
Muscovite, A Rock-forming Mineral Belonging To The Mica Group (see Mica). It Is Also Known As Potash-mica, Being A Potassium, Hydrogen And Aluminium Orthosilicate, As The Common White Mica Obtainable In Thin, Transparent Cleav Age Sheets Of Large Size It Was Formerly Used In Russia For Window Panes And Known ...

Muses
Muses, Goddesses Presiding Over Song And Ultimately Over The Liberal Arts Generally (mokat, Originally *mlinat, 1116paat "the Mindful Ones"). In Homer, They Are Represented As Singing To The Gods, To The Accompaniment Of Apollo, And As Jealous Of The Attempt Of Thamyris The Thracian Bard To Rival Them (11. 604; ...

Museum Architecture
Museum Architecture. Both Art And Scientific Museums Have The Primary Purpose Of Displaying Collections Of Objects; Consequently, Certain Features Of Architectural Planning Are Common To Both. Essentially, The Plan Of Each Must Provide For The Free And Comfortable Circulation Of The Public, An Easy Access To The Various Sections Of ...

Museums Of Science
Museums Of Science. The Term "museum" Originally Meant The "temple Of The Muses," But Now The Conception Is Entirely Altered. In The Ancient World There Were Collections Of Paintings And Statuary In The Temples And Palaces Of Greece And Rome. Alexander The Great Gave Large Sums Of Money To His ...

Navy Medical Service
Medical Service, Navy. In The British Navy, Medi Cal Requirements At The Present Day Are Provided For By A Special Department Of The Admiralty Which Is Placed Under The Admin Istration Of The Medical Director General,—an Officer Selected From The List Of Surgeon Rear-admirals. As Head Of His Department, He ...

Nelson Appleton Miles
Miles, Nelson Appleton American Soldier, Was Born In Westminster, Mass., On Aug. 8, 1839. He Was Engaged In Mercantile Pursuits In Boston When The Civil War Began, And He Entered The Army In Sept. 1861, As A Lieutenant Of Volunteer Infantry. He Served With Distinction In The Peninsular Campaign, And ...

Neuropathology
Neuropathology.) Cellular Pathology.—the Doctrine Of The Essential Cellular Nature Of Living Things Had Been Established By 1840. (see Biol Ogy : History.) Soon The Conception Of Protoplasm As The Physical Basis Of Life, And The General Structure Of The Cell, Including The Nucleus As An Essential Structure, Came Into Clear ...

Nevil Maskelyne
Maskelyne, Nevil English Astronomer Royal, Was Born In London, On Oct. 6, 1732. He Was Educated At Westminster School And Trinity College, Cambridge, Where He Graduated As Seventh Wrangler In 1754. He Was Ordained In 1755, But His Interest In Astronomy Had Been Aroused By The Eclipse Of July 25, ...

Obstetrics And Gynaecology
Obstetrics And Gynaecology Eclampsia.—the Exact Pathology Of Eclampsia Has Not Yet Been Solved. Obata, As The Result Of Injecting Mice With Extracts Of Human Eclamptic Placenta, Considers That It Is An Intoxication By Placental Poisons Made Possible By A Weakening In Its Normal Capacity Of Neutralization On The Part Of ...

Of Minerals
Of Minerals A Mineral-species, Or Simple Mineral, Is Completely Defined By The Statement Of Its Chemical Composition And Crystalline Form. When We Are Dealing With A Definite Chemical Compound The Limi Tation Of Species Is Easy Enough ; Thus Corundum, Cassiterite, Ga Lena, Blende, Etc. Are Quite Sharply Defined Mineral ...

Oliver Perry 1823 1877 Morton
Morton, Oliver Perry (1823-1877), American Political Leader, "war Governor" Of Indiana, Was Born In Salis Bury, Ind., On August 4, 1823. After Studying For Two Years (1843-45) At Miami University, He Practised Law At Centerville, Ind., And In 1852 Became Circuit Judge. In Feb. 1856 He Was A Member Of ...

Operation
Operation. On Sept. 2, 1918, Ten Days Before The St. Mihiel Battle In The World War, And During The Concentration Of Troops Therefor, An Agreement Was Reached That The American I. Army Should Attack On The Meuse Argonne Front Immediately After The Completion Of The St. Mihiel Operation. Marshal Foch ...

Operations In Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia, Operations In. The Operations Of 1914-18 In Mesopotamia Were In Their Initial Stages Conceived On, Comparatively Speaking, Modest Lines. The Object At The Outset Was Merely (i) To Protect The Anglo-persian Oil Instal Lations, (2) To Occupy The Greater Part Of The Basra Vilayet So As To Secure Possession ...

Orbits Described About A
Orbits Described About A Centre Of Force 31. The Problem Confronting Newton, For Which He Developed His System Of Dynamics, Was To Explain The Motion Of The Heavenly Bodies— The Paths, Or Orbits, Which They Describe In Relation To The Earth. His Explanation Is Based On The Assumption Of "universal ...

Ore Treatment
Ore Treatment Where Metallurgy Begins.—beginning With The Quarry Or Mine, It Is Difficult To Determine Precisely Where The Province Of Mining Ends And That Of Metallurgy Begins. Metals Occur In Nature Only Rarely In The Free State, But Usually In The Form Of "ores"—i.e., Of Minerals In Which The Metal ...

Or Medina
Medina, Or Rather (the City), Or Medina R Rasul Allah (the City Of The Apostle Of God), A Town Of Arabia, About 82o M. By Rail S.s.e. Of Damascus, The Refuge Of Mohammed On His Emigration From Mecca, And A Renowned Place Of Muslim Pilgrimage, Consecrated By The Possession Of ...

Or Michoacan De Ocampo
Michoacan, Or Michoacan De Ocampo, A State Of Mexico Touching On The Pacific. Pop. (1921) 939,849, Chiefly Indians And Mestizos. Area, 23,198 Sq. Miles. Its Territory Is Divided Into Two Nearly Equal Parts By The Sierra Madre Occi Dental, The Northern Part Belonging To The Great Central Plateau Region, And ...