MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOL OGY, THE, an institution of higher education in Cambridge, Mass., was incorporated in 1861. It owes its origin to William Barton Rogers, its first president, a scientist of high rank and president of the National Academy of Science. He urged the establishment of an institute in which scientific pursuits should predominate. Owing to the outbreak of the Civil War it was not until 1865 that it was possible to make an actual begin ning. The courses were especially designed to prepare men for mechanical and civil engineering and for the professions of the architect and chemist. In 1866, the institute moved into its first building on Boylston street, Boston, provided chemical labora tories and three years later physical laboratories. During 187o 76 the mining and metallurgy, mechanical engineering and me chanic arts laboratories and three new courses, mining, physics and biology were established. By 190o the number of students had increased to 1,200 and the number of the instructing staff to 153. Three more large buildings had been erected and f our new courses established—in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering and naval architecture. The magnificent new buildings of the Massa chusetts Institute of Technology built some ten years later in Cambridge on the banks of the Charles river gave the institute unexcelled facilities for engineering education and research.
The institute is one of the land grant colleges. The government is vested in a corporation consisting of eight ex-officio members, including three as provided by act of the Legislature, of not less than 25 nor more than 35 life members, of 15 alumni term mem bers and of not more than five special term members. The in
structing staff in 1936 consisted of 529 members of whom were of professorial grade. These professors constitute the fac ulty, which has immediate supervision of all matters relating to educational policies, curricula and courses of study, and to the ad mission and conduct of students. Exclusive of the summer school, the number of students in 1936 was 2,793 ; of this number 619 were pursuing graduate study. The regular course of undergradu ate study leads to the degree of S.B. in the following 16 branches of engineering : aeronautical engineering, architectural engineering, building engineering and construction, business and engineering administration, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, electrochemical engineering, general engineering, ma rine transportation, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, mining engineering, naval architecture and marine engineering, public health engineering, and sanitary engineering; to an S. B. in the following sciences : biology, biology and public health, chemistry, general science, geology, mathematics and physics ; and to a bachelor of architecture and to a bachelor of architecture in city planning. Opportunities are afforded for advanced degrees of master of science, master of architecture, master of city planning, doctor of philosophy, doctor of science, and doctor of public health. (S. W. S.)