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St Marylebone
Marylebone, St., Commonly Marylebone Bon), A North-western Metropolitan Borough Of London, Bounded North By Hampstead, East By St. Pancras And Holborn, South By The City Of Westminster And West By Paddington. Pop. (1931) 97,62o. The Boundary Runs Along Oxford Street, On The South, Crossing Regent Street At Oxford Circus, And ...

St Maximus
Maximus, St. (c. 580-662), Abbot Of Chrysopolis, Known As "the Confessor" From His Orthodox Zeal In The Monothelite (q.v.) Controversy, Or As "the Monk," Was Born Of Noble Parentage At Constantinople About The Year 580. He Became Private Secre Tary To The Emperor Heraclius In 61o. In 63o He Entered ...

Standards Of Capacity
Standards Of Capacity Theoretically, The Unit Of Capacity Should Be The Same As The Unit Of Volume—that Is, The Volume Of A Cube Each Of Whose Sides Is Equal To The Unit Of Length. In Practice, However, It Is Extremely Difficult To Construct Such A Cube With Accuracy, And Still ...

Standards Of Length
Standards Of Length The History Of Standards Of Length Is One Of Varying Ascend Ency Of Three Principal Competing Types. A Length May Be Defined By The Distance, Under Certain Specified Conditions, Either Between The Two End Surfaces Of A Material Standard Bar, Or Between Two Suitable Marks Engraved Upon ...

Standards Of Mass
Standards Of Mass No Attempt Has So Far Been Made To Define A Unit Of Mass By Means Of Any Natural Standard, Though A Standard Of This Kind, E.g., A Definite Multiple, Say, Of The Atomic Mass Of Helium, Would Not Be Inconceivable. Prior To The Discovery Of The Radioactive ...

Statistics
Statistics And Probability) Should Not Be Lost Sight Of ; The Leading Fields For These Applications Are Insurance, Sociology, Varia Tion In Zoology And Economics. 1908). Also The Following Works Are Of Importance, Though Not All Expressly Expounding The Leibnitzian Point Of View: Cf. G. Cantor, "grundlagen Einer Allgemeinen Mannigfaltigkeitslehre," ...

Strength Of Materials
Materials, Strength Of, Is A Branch Of Applied Mechanics Which Deals With The Effects Produced By Forces In The Materials Of Architectural And Engineering Construction. Its Aims (in So Far As These Are Practical) Are To Discover Rules Whereby The Strength Of A Given Part May Be Assessed, And On ...

Structure Of Muscle
Muscle, Structure Of. Muscle Is The Tissue By Which The Various Parts Of The Body Are Moved. Thus It Forms The Main Bulk Of The Limbs, Back, Neck And Body Wall. Most Of The Viscera Too Possess Well Developed Muscular Coats. Muscle In All Instances Is Built Up Of A ...

Sweden
Sweden .—acta Mathematica (1882+), Founded By Mittag Leffler, One Of The Most Important Mathematical Periodicals In The World, Is Edited By Mathematicians Of Sweden, Norway, Den Mark And Finland, And Is Published By The Mathematical Insti Tute, At Djursholm, Of The Royal Academy Of Sciences (k. Svenska Vetenskabsakademien), Stockholm. The ...

Synopsis Of Existing Developments
Synopsis Of Existing Developments Of Pure Mathematics The International Catalogue.—a Complete Classification Of Mathematical Sciences, As They At Present Exist, Is To Be Found In The International Catalogue Of Scientific Literature Promoted By The Royal Society, And Was Drawn Up By An International Com Mittee Of Eminent Mathematicians, And Has ...

The Benedictine Rule 9
The Benedictine Rule (9). Western Monachism In The Early Middle Ages.—soon The Benedictine Form Of Monastic Life Became The Only One In Western Europe (see Benedictines). The Only Serious Rival Was The Irish Rule Of Columban. The Beginnings Of Celtic Mona Chism Are Obscure. When, However, Irish Monachism Emerges Into ...

The British Advance Up
The British Advance Up The Tigris During The Latter Part Of April The Turks Showed A Marked Increase Of Activity; But All Their Offensive Efforts Were Frustrated, And Nixon, Encouraged By These Successes, Decided To Occupy Imara, 6om. North Of Al Qurna On The Tigris. The Task Was Entrusted To ...

The Caliphs Armies
The Caliphs' Armies The Byzantine Writers, Who Had Two Centuries Of Arab Warfare Behind Them When They Wrote Their Accounts Of The Caliphs' Armies, Have To Distinguish Between Two Sorts Of Collisions With The Saracen Enemy. Comparatively Rarely, And Hardly Ever After The Year Boo, The Caliph Himself Took The ...

The Composition And Some
The Composition And Some Physical Properties Of The Atmosphere General Composition.—the Atmosphere Is A Simple Mixture Of Gases, Of Which Nitrogen And Oxygen Account For A Little More Than 99%. The Proportions Of The Usual Constituents Of Dry Air Are Given In A Table In The Article Atmosphere. Sults Appear ...

The Council Of The
The Council Of The League And The Protection Of Minorities Since Its Creation, The Council Has At Almost Every Session Been Called Upon To Consider Questions Connected With The Protection Of Racial, Linguistic Or Religious Minorities. Mention Should Be Made In The First Place Of The Steps Taken By The ...

The Duties Of Minorities
The Duties Of Minorities The Treaties Contain No Stipulations Regarding The "duties" Of Minorities Towards The States Of Which They Form Part. The Third Ordinary Assembly Of The League, However, In 1922, When Defining Certain Points Of The Procedure To Be Fol Lowed In Settling Minority Questions, Also Adopted The ...

The First Theatrical Venture
The First Theatrical Venture The Illustre Contract Between The Members Of The Illustre Theatre Was Of A Kind That Had Been Familiar To The Theatrical Fraternity Since Charles Vi. Had Accorded His Royal Protection To The Confreres De La Passion In 15oz. Each Of The Associates Contributed To The Funds ...

The Gasoline Automobile Engine
The Gasoline Automobile Engine The Automobile Engine Transforms The Chemical Energy Of A Mixture Of Air And Fuel (petrol Or Gasoline) Into Mechanical Energy Which Can Do Work, I.e., Move The Car. The Engine Is Often Also Called The Power Plant. Essen Tially The Engine Consists Of : (i) An ...

The General Circulation Of
The General Circulation Of The Atmosphere The Distribution Of Temperature Over The Earth.—the Distribution Of Temperature Over The Earth Is Usually Represented By Two Charts, One Of The Mean Temperature For January And One Of The Mean Temperature For July. These Two Months Rep Resent The Extremes Of Winter And ...

The Grecian Empire
The Grecian Empire Hellenism.—what Would Have Happened Had Alexander Lived We Can Only Guess. Under The Seleucids Babylon Was Moved Across The Plain To Seleucia; But Before Long The Central Authority Was Transferred To The Other Side Of Mesopotamia, Antioch Or Else Where—a Fateful Move. It Is Improbable That Cuneiform ...

The Mechanical Parts Of
The Mechanical Parts Of The Microscope Scopic Effects Can Be Obtained With These Systems By Adjusting The Eyepieces So That They Produce Ramsden Circles Separated By A Distance Slightly Less Than The Distance Between The Eyes Of The Observer. When The Observer's Eyes Are Placed At The Ramsden Circles, The ...

The Mediaeval Period
The Mediaeval Period Celtic Missionaries.—the Passionate Zeal Of The Celtic Mis Sions Has Never Been Surpassed In Christendom. The Men Came From The Celtic Churches Of The Scottish Highlands And Ireland, Out Of A Christianity That Is Probably A Legacy Of The Roman Occupation Of Britain. Their Missionary Passion Owed ...

The New York Money
The New York Money Market The Focus Of The American Money Market Is New York. There Are Other Subsidiary Money Centres Such As Chicago, St. Louis And San Francisco, But The Facilities Of These Secondary Markets Are Not Sufficiently Extensive To Attract A Large Volume Of Funds. The Growth Of ...

The Origin Of Cyclones
The Origin Of Cyclones Of Middle Latitudes The Convection Theory.—the So-called Convection Theory Of The Origin Of Cyclones Supposes That Thermal Causes Produce A Strongly Localized Ascending Current In One Place, And That The Convergence Of Air From The Surrounding Regions To Take The Place Of The Air Removed By ...

The Protection Of Minorities
The Protection Of Minorities Under The Guarantee Of The League Of Nations The Minorities Treaties.—in Pursuance Of Certain Clauses In The General Treaties Of Peace, Greece, Poland, Rumania, Czecho Slovakia And The Kingdom Of The Serbs, Croats And Slovenes Agreed To The Insertion In Special Treaties With The Principal Allied ...

The Relation Of Stress
The Relation Of Stress To Strain 21. We Have Seen (§ 9) That Six Independent Quantities (the "stress-components") Are Required, In General, To Specify A State Of Stress; And Further (§ 7), That Three Relations Between Them (the "stress Equations" Of Motion Or Equilibrium) Can Be Obtained By An Application ...

The Rights And Duties
The Rights And Duties Of Minorities Various Treaties Guaranteed To Racial, Linguistic Or Religious Minorities Certain Rights, Which May Be Grouped Under The Follow Ing Headings; (a) A Number Of General Rights More Or Less Com Mon To All Minorities In Countries Which Have Accepted The Sys Tem Of The ...

The Siege Of Kut
The Siege Of Kut With The Approval Of The Home And Indian Governments, Nixon Decided That Townshend Was To Remain Where He Was, Although If He Did So He Was Bound To Be Invested. They Assumed, Too Readily, That He Would Be Relieved Before His Supplies Ran Out. By Dec. ...

The Zenith
The Zenith Le Misanthrope.—l'amour Medecin Was Followed On June 4, I666, By Le Misanthrope, The Greatest Of The Comedies Of Moliere. His Theme Is No Longer The Special Vice Of A Particular Class Or Profession, But The Whole Attitude Of The Just Man To A Society Necessarily Founded On Compromise. ...

Theodor 1817 1903 Mommsen
Mommsen, Theodor (1817-1903), German Historian And Archaeologist, Was Born On Nov. 30, 1817 At Garding, In Schleswig. After Being Educated At Kiel He Devoted Himself To The Study Of Roman Law And Antiquities. In 1843 A Grant From The Danish Government Enabled Him To Go To Italy, Where He Began ...

Theory Of Elasticity 2
Theory Of Elasticity 2. For A Full Account Of The Methods And Results Of Mathemati Cal Enquiry The Special Article Elasticity Should Be Consulted. Much Of The Theory Is Concerned With Problems Of Physical Rather Than Engineering Interest, And Methods Of More Restricted Range :an Be Employed To Obtain Those ...

Thomas 1557 1603 Morley
Morley, Thomas (1557-1603), English Musical Com Poser, Was A Pupil Of William Byrd, But Nothing Is Known As To His Origin And Very Little As To The Incidents Of His Career. He Was Admitted (july 5, 1588) Mus. Bac. At Oxford, And In 1596 Entered The Chapel Royal, Where He ...

Thomas 1595 1650 May
May, Thomas (1595-1650), English Poet And Historian, Son Of Sir Thomas May Of Mayfield, Sussex, Was Born In 1595. He Entered Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, In 1609, And Took His B-a. Degree Three Years Later. His Father Having Lost His Fortune And Sold The Family Estate, Thomas May, Who Was ...

Thomas 1676 1751 Mathews
Mathews, Thomas (1676-1751), British Admiral, Was Born At Llandaff Court, Llandaff. He Entered The Navy About 1690 And After Various Appointments During The War With Spain (1718-20) Commanded The "kent" In The Fleet Of Sir George Byng (lord Torrington). From 1722 To 1724 He Had The Command Of A Small ...

Thomas 1779 1852 Moore
Moore, Thomas (1779-1852), Irish Poet, Was Born In Dublin On May 28, 1779. His Father Was John Moore, A Prosper Ous Grocer And Wine Merchant, And His Mother's Maiden Name Was Anastasia Codd. In 1793 Tom Moore's Name First Appeared In Print, As A Contributor Of Some Verses "to Zelia," ...

Thomas Francis Meagher
Meagher, Thomas Francis Irish Revolutionary Leader, Orator And American Soldier, Was Born In Waterford, Ireland, On Aug. 3, 1823. He Graduated At Stonyhurst College, Dublin. He Became A Member Of The Young Ireland Party In 1845, And In 1847 Was One Of The Founders Of The Irish Confederation. In July ...

Thomas Garrigue Masaryk
Masaryk, Thomas Garrigue First President Of Czechoslovakia, Was Born On March 7, 185o, In The Moravian Border-town Hodonin. His Father Was A Coachman Em Ployed On One Of The Austrian Imperial Estates, A Native Of Kop Zany In Slovakia (slovakia Then Being A Part Of Hungary) His Mother Came From ...

Thomas Middleton
Middleton, Thomas (c. 1570-1627), English Dra Matist, Son Of William Middleton, Was Born About 1570, Probably In London. He May Probably Be Identified With One Of The Thomas Middletons Entered At Gray's Inn In 1593 And 1596 Respectively. His Earliest Work Was The Wisdom Of Solomon Paraphrased (1597). He Began ...

Thomas Morton
Morton, Thomas (c. 159o-1646), Usually Called Thomas Morton Of Merrymount, English Adventurer In America, Was A Lawyer Of Clifford's Inn, London, And Seems To Have Practised In The West Of England. He Spent Three Months In America In 1622; Returned In 1625, And Settled At Mount Wollaston, In What Is ...

Thomas Munzer
Munzer, Thomas (c. 1489-1525), German Anabaptist, Was Born At Stolberg In The Harz, And Educated At Leipzig And Frankfort, Graduating In Theology. In 1520 He Became A Preacher At The Church Of St. Mary, Zwickau, And His Rude Eloquence, To Gether With His Attacks On The Monks, Soon Raised Him ...

Top Slicing
Top Slicing This Method, Developed From Methods Used In The North Of England Iron Mines, Was First Used In The Iron Mines Of The United States. Later It Was Adapted To The Mining Of Copper And Lead-zinc Ores. Since The Timber Is Not Recovered, It Is As Poor A Grade ...

Types Of Conveyors
Types Of Conveyors One Of The Oldest Conveyor Devices Is The Worm Or Screw Con Veyor. It Consists Of A Stationary Trough Of Wood Or Steel Plates, In Which A Helix Rotates And Pushes The Material Fed Into It From End To End. Its Capacity Is Relatively Small, It Is ...

Ubature 23
:,'ubature 23. The Solid Figure Which Corresponds To The Trapezette Is Called A Briquette. It Is Bounded By A Pair Of Parallel Planes, Another Pair Of Parallel Planes At Right Angles To These, A Base At Right Angles To These Four Planes (and Therefore Rectangular), And A Top Which Is ...

United
United States.—the New York Mathematical Society, Founded In 1888, Developed Into The American Mathematical Society (1894) Which Now Has About 1,80o Members, And Is Dedi Cated To Promoting Mathematical Research. The Bulletin Of The New York Mathematical Society (1891-94) Was Continued As Bulletin Of The American Mathematical Society (1894+). The ...

University Of Michigan
Michigan, University Of, Ann Arbor, Mich., Is One Of The Largest Educational Institutions Of The U.s.a. And Is One Of The Oldest State Universities. Its Schools And Colleges And Their Dates Are : Literature, Science, And The Arts, 1841; Medi Cine, 185o; Law, 1859; Dental Surgery, 1875; Pharmacy, 1876 (first ...

University Of Minnesota
Minnesota, University Of, Established Under The Territorial Act In 1851 And Perpetuated By Provisions Of The State Constitution, The University Of Minnesota Began Its Work Of Instruction In 1868. By 1928 It Had Become One Of The Largest Of American Universities. The Scope Of Its Instruction Is Exemplified By The ...

Utah
Utah: History) And Parts Of Idaho (q.v.), Nevada (q.v.), Colo Rado, Arizona And New Mexico. Young Built Temples, Tabernacles, Theatres, Founded Schools, And Was At The Head And Front Of Every Great Mercantile, Industrial, Or Educational Movement In His Vicinity. He Also Perpetuated The Missionary System Of The Church And ...

Victor 1848 1897 Meyer
Meyer, Victor (1848-1897), German Chemist, Was Born At Berlin On Sept. 8, 1848. He Studied At Heidelberg Under R. W. Bunsen, H. F. M. Kopp, G. R. Kirchoff And H. L. F. Helmhotz (qq.v.) ; He Also Worked Under Baeyer (q.v.) In Berlin. In 187o He Was Appointed Extraordinary Professor ...

War Of The
War Of The.) In Snowy Weather Each Army Was For Some Time In Ignorance Of The Other's Whereabouts, But Frederick Eventually Located The Austrians In The Village Of Mollwitz. He Got To Within 2 M. Of Them Before They Were Alarmed; Then Solemnly Formed His Army In The Usual Two ...

Weights
Weights The Whole Subject Of Weights As Treated Here Is Based On The Egyptian Material, As That Is By Far The Earliest And The Best Known Historically, And In Amount The Largest Published. The Arrange Ment Found In Egypt Serves Best To Classify The Standards Of Other Countries. The Broad ...

William 1 849miller
Miller, William (1 849), Leader Of The Second Adventists In America, Was Born On Feb. 5, 1782, At Pittsfield, Mass. He Bore A Good Reputation As A Farmer And Citizen, Served As A Captain In The War Of 1812, And Was A Diligent Student And Reader, Although He Had Only ...

William 1796 1882 Miller
Miller, William (1796-1882), Scottish Was Born In Edinburgh On May 28, 1796. After Studying In Lon Don Under George Cook, A Pupil Of Basire's, He Returned To Edin Burgh. He Executed Plates After Thomson Of Duddingston, Mac Culloch, D. A Hill, Sir George Harvey, And Other Scottish Land Scapists, But ...

The Christian Ministry
Ministry, The Christian. The Purpose Of This Article Must Be To Trace The History Of The Existing Christian Ministries, Assuming, As With But Insignificant Exceptions All Christian Communities Do, That A Ministry Is Necessary For Their Welfare, And Indeed For Their Existence. Practically, Our Enquiry Must Be Into The Development ...

The Massachusetts Institute Of
Massachusetts Institute Of Technol Ogy, The, An Institution Of Higher Education In Cambridge, Mass., Was Incorporated In 1861. It Owes Its Origin To William Barton Rogers, Its First President, A Scientist Of High Rank And President Of The National Academy Of Science. He Urged The Establishment Of An Institute In ...

The Middle Ages
Middle Ages, The. The Term Is Of Course A Modern Term, Coined Consciously To Define The Contrast Which Its Authors Felt Between The Centuries Which Succeeded The Downfall Of The Ancient World And Their Own Time. To Them The World Of Old Greece And Rome Was In Some Ways Nearer ...

The Middle West
Middle West, The, The Northern Portion Of The Central United States And More Specifically The States Of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, Wisconsin And Minnesota. In His American Commonwealth (1888), James Bryce Ob Served That In The United States There Were Four Areas Which Were Diverse In Cultural Aspects. After ...

The Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine, The, Was The Fruition Of Early American Policy. There Had Long Been A Deep-seated Conviction On The Part Of The People Of The United States That The Opportunities Of A Hard-won Freedom Would Be Threatened By The Ambitions Of European Powers And That The Aims Of The New ...