NEBUCHADREZZAR or NEBUCHADNEZZAR, king of Babylon, the Nal3outcoop6cropos of the Greeks. The first and last are nearer to the original name as it is found on the cuneiform monuments, viz., Nabu-kudurri-usur, "Nebo, defend the land mark." Nebuchadrezzar seems to have been of Chaldean origin. He married Amuhia, daughter of the Median king, according to Abydenus, and in 605 B.C. defeated Necho at Carchemish, driving the Egyptians out of Asia and annexing Syria to the Babylonian empire. In the following year he succeeded his father Nabopolassar on the Babylonian throne, and continued the restoration of Babylon, which he made one of the wonders of the world. His "new palace" there was built in fifteen days; temples were erected to the gods, the great walls of the city were con structed with a moat surrounding them, the Euphrates was lined with brick and a strong fortress erected. Canals were dug through out the country and a great reservoir excavated near the capital.
Only a fragment of his annals has been preserved, recording his campaign against Amasis (Ahmosi) of Egypt in his thirty-seventh year (567 B.c.) when he defeated the soldiers of "Phut of the Ionians." Tyre revolted in the seventh year of his reign, and was besieged for 13 years; a contract-tablet dated in his fortieth year shows that at that time it was under Babylonian officials.
After the investment of Tyre Nebuchadrezzar marched against Jerusalem, put Jehoiakim to death and placed Jehoiachin on the throne. Three months later Jehoiachin was deposed and Zede kiah made king in his place. Zedekiah's revolt in 588 B.C. led to another siege of Jerusalem, which was taken and destroyed in 586 B.C. (See JEWS and JERUSALEM.) From his inscriptions we gather that Nebuchadrezzar was a man of peculiarly religious character.
See Josephus, Cont. Apion,i. 19; Eusebius, Praep. Evangel. x.