Home >> Encyclopedia-britannica-volume-16-mushroom-ozonides >> Nuevo Leon to Office Appliances

Encyclopedia Britannica

Nuevo Leon
Nuevo Leon, A Northern State Of Mexico. Pop. (1930) 417,491; Area 25,136 Sq. Miles. Nuevo Leon Lies Partly Upon The Great Mexican Plateau And Partly Upon Its Eastern Slopes, The Sierra Madre Oriental Crossing The State North-west To South-east. A Branch Of The Sierra Madre Extends Northward From The Vicin ...

Nullification
Nullification, The Process Of Making Null Or Of No Effect (lat. Nullus, None). In United States History The Term Is Applied To The Process By Which A State Either (a) In Fact Suspend Ed, Or (b) Claimed A Constitutional Right Of Suspending, The Opera Tion Of A Federal Law Within ...

Nullity Of Marriage
Nullity Of Marriage, A Judicial Declaration That A Marriage Was Null And Void Ab Initio (from The Beginning). In The 12th Century The Roman Law Doctrine Of Nullity Of Marriage Was Developed In Order To Deal With Hard Cases Under The Principle Of The Indissolubility Of Marriage Laid Down By ...

Numa Pompilius
Numa Pompilius, Second Legendary King Of Rome (7i 672 B.c.), Was A Sabine, A Native Of Cures, And His Wife Was The Daughter Of Titus Tatius, The Sabine Colleague Of Romulus. He Was Elected By The Roman People At The Close Of A Year's Inter Regnum, During Which The Sovereignty ...

Number
Number, An Abstract Term For The Integers I, 2, 3, . . . As Well As For The Various Mathematical Generalizations Of The Integers, Such As Fractions And Irrational Quantities. It Is Also Used As A Concrete Term. The Practice Of Specifying The Multiplicity Of Classes Of Objects By Means ...

Number Sequences
Number Sequences. A Set Of Numbers Is Said To Form An Ordered Set If, In Addition To The Definition Of The Elements In The Set, There Is Also Given A Means By Which Relative Rank May Be Assigned To Any Two Numbers Of The Set So That Of Two Such ...

Numbers
Numbers Is The Fourth Book Of The Pentateuch, As The Five Books Of The Law, Or Of Moses, Have Come To Be Called. The Three Previous Books Carried On The Story Of Israel's History From The Creation, Through The Captivity In Egypt And The Escape Therefrom, Down To The Sojourn ...

Numeral Systems
Numeral Systems. There Is No Language Without Some Numerals ; The Notion Of Unity And Plurality Is Expressed At Least In The Formation Of "one" And "two," Though "two" Is Often Equal To "much," Thus Concluding A Numeration That Has Just Only Start Ed. It Is Doubtful Whether Even Systemless ...

Numerals
Numerals. Just As The First Attempts At Writing Came Long After The Development Of Speech, So The First Efforts At The Graphical Representation Of Numbers Came Long After People Had Learned To Count. Judging By The Habits Of Primitive Tribes Of The Present As Well As By The Oldest Trace ...

Numidia
Numidia, The Classical Narna Of A Territory In The Northern Part Of Africa. When The Romans First Came Into Conflict With Carthage In The 3rd Century B.c., The Name Was Applied To The Whole Country From The River Mulucha (now The Muluya), To The Frontier Of The Carthaginian Territory. Numidians ...

Numismatics
Numismatics (from The Latin Numisma, A Coin) Is The Study Of Coins And Medals. Coins Were First Issued In East And West In The Eighth Century B.c., And Since Then Their Use Has Spread Over The Whole Civilised World. Unlike Many Objects In Every-day Use, They Have Always Been Highly ...

Nuni Novgorod
Nuni-novgorod (renamed, 1932, Goma), Chief Town Of Province Nijni-novgorod, R.s.f.s.r., At The Confluence Of The Oka And Volga Rivers In 56° 24' N., E. Pop. 451,500. The City Owes Its Importance To Its Position At The Junction Of The Navigable Rivers Between Which, To The West Of It, Was The ...

Nursery Equipment
Nursery Equipment. A Baby Should Room Alone, If Possible, And Must Always Sleep Alone. Nursery Equipment Should Be Simple And All Furniture And Fittings Of A Type That May Be Readily Washed. Painted Walls Are Preferable But Fresh Clean Wall Paper Is Permissible. The Best Floors Are Well Oiled Or ...

Nursery Schools
Nursery Schools. The Nursery School Is A Compara Tively Modern Section Of Education Arising From The Necessity Of Providing A Suitable Environment For The Mental And Physical Development Of Children Of Pre-school Age. And Sunshine ; Open Space ; Hygienic Structures ; Opportunity For Physical Activity And Sleep; Education On ...

Nursing
Nursing. The Evolution Of The Sick-nurse Is Mainly Due To Three Very Diverse Influences—religion, War And Science—to Name Them In Chronological Order. It Was Religion Which First Induced Ladies, In The Earlier Centuries Of Christianity, To Take Up The Care Of The Sick As A Charitable Duty. The Names Of ...

Nusku
Nusku, Personification Of The New-moon, The Name Of The Light And Fire-god In Sumer, Babylonia And Assyria, Who Is Hardly To Be Distinguished From A God Gibil. Nusku-gibil Is The Symbol Of The Heavenly As Well As Of The Terrestrial Fire. As The Former He Is The Son Of Anu, ...

Nut Culture In The
Nut Culture In The United States. The United States Is Especially Rich In Native Nut-bearing Trees, As The Black Walnut, Butternut, Chestnut, Hazel And Various Hickories, And Contains Large Districts In Which The Soil And Climate Are Suitable For Nut Production. Recent Experimental Cultivation Of Numerous Varieties Of Native As ...

Nutmeg
Nutmeg, The Commercial Name Of A Spice Representing The Kernel Of The Seed Of Myristica Fragrans, A Dioecious Evergreen Tree, About 5o To 6o Ft. High, Found Wild In The Molucca Islands And Extending To New Guinea. Nutmeg And Mace Are Mostly Obtained From The Molucca Islands, Although The Cultivation ...

Nyasa
Nyasa, The Third In Size Of The Great Lakes Of Central Africa. It Occurs South Of The Confluence Of The Two Great Rift Valleys And Extends From 9° 29' S. To 14° 25' S. The Lake Measures Along Its Major Axis, Which Is Slightly Inclined To The West Of North, ...

Nyasaland Protectorate
Nyasaland Protectorate. Nyasaland Covers Rather More Than 40,000 Sq.m., Of Which 37,890 Are Land. The Country Is Situated Between 45' And 17° 15' S., And Between 33° And 36° E. Its Length From North To South Is About 52o M., While Its Width Varies From 5o To Roo Miles. It ...

Nyika
Nyika. This Swahili Word Means "forest And Thorn Bush Country" And Is Used By The Swahili To Designate A Set Of Eastern Bantu Tribes, Who During The 16th Century Under Pressure From The Galla Migrated Down The Coast From The Steppes On The Left Bank Of The Tana River. It ...

Nymphs
Nymphs, In Greek Mythology, The Generic Name Of A Large Number Of Female Divinities Of Inferior Rank. The Word, The Etymology Of Which Is Uncertain, Seems To Mean Simply A Mar Riageable Woman ; This Is Appropriate, As They Are Mostly Asso Ciated With Fertile, Growing Things (as Trees), Or ...

Oakland
Oakland, A City Of California, U.s.a., On The Eastern Shore Of San Francisco Bay, Opposite San Francisco (3 M. Distant) And Facing The Golden Gate ; The County Seat Of Alameda County And The Third City Of The State In Size. It Has A Municipal Airport Of 825 Ac. ; ...

Oats Cultivation And Trade
Oats: Cultivation And Trade. Oats Are The Principal Cereal Crop In Great Britain, Their Acreage In England And Wales Exceeding That Of Wheat By One-fifth And In Other Parts Of The Kingdom By A Still Greater Margin. The Oat Is A Comparatively Hardy, Robust Plant And Is Adaptable To A ...

Oaxaca
Oaxaca (wah-hah'ka) Or Oajaca (officially Oaxaca De Juarez), A Southern State Of Mexico, Including The Southern And Larger Part Of The Isthmus Of Tehuantepec. Pop. (1900) 948,633, (1910) 1,040.398, (193o) 1,082,191, A Large Majority Of Whom Are Indians. The State Has An Area Of 35,382sq.m. Broken By Mountain Ranges Into ...

Oaxaca Or Oaxaca De
Oaxaca Or Oaxaca De Juarez (official Title) (from Aztec Huaxyacac), Capital Of The Mexican State Of Oaxaca. Pop. (1921) 27,792, Largely Indians, Most Of Whom Are Mixtecas And Zapotecas. Oaxaca Is Connected With Puebla (211 M.) By The Mexican Southern Railway. The City Lies In A Broad, Picturesque Valley 5,o85 ...

Obadiah
Obadiah, The Fourth Of The "minor Prophets," The Other Wise Unknown Author Of The Shortest Book In The Old Testament, Whose 21 Verses, Even, Show Evidence Of The Expansion Or Addi Tion Of Which A Manuscript, As Distinct From A Printed Book, So Easily Admits. Whilst The First Fourteen Verses ...

Obelisk
Obelisk, A Form Of Monumental Pillar; And Also The Term For A Bibliographical Reference-mark In The Form Of A Dagger. The Typical Egyptian .obelisk Is An Upright Monolith Of Nearly Square Section, Generally Ten Diameters In Height, The Sides Slightly Con Vex, Tapering Upwards Very Gradually And Evenly, And Terminated ...

Oberlin
Oberlin, A Village Of Lorain County, Ohio, U.s.a., 34 M. W.s.w. Of Cleveland, On Federal Highway 20, And Served By The New York Central Lines And Electric Railways. Pop. (193o) It Is A Pleasant Residential Village, The Seat Of Oberlin College And Other Educational Institutions. Since 1926 It Has Had ...

Obligation
Obligation, In Law, A Term Derived From The Roman Law, In Which Obligatio Signified A Tie Of Law (vinculum Iuris), Whereby One Person Is Bound To Perform Or Forbear Some Act For Another. The Obligatio Of Roman Law Arose Either From Voluntary Acts Or From Circumstances To Which Legal Consequences ...

Oboe Or Hautboy
Oboe Or Hautboy. The Treble Member Of The Class Of Wood-wind Instruments Having A Conical Bore And A Double Reed Mouthpiece, The Oboe Consists Of A Conical Wooden Tube, Com Posed Of Three Joints, Upper, Middle And Bell, And Of A Short Metal Tube To Which Are Bound By Many ...

Obscenity
Obscenity. By English Common Law It Is An Indictable Misdemeanour To Give An Obscene Exhibition Or To Publish Any Ob Scene Matter, Whether It Be In Writing Or By Pictures, Effigy Or Otherwise. But The Test Of Criminality As Accepted In England Is Whether The Exhibition Or Matter Complained Of ...

Observatory Astronomical
Observatory (astronomical). The Erection Of Special Buildings For Astronomical Research Is A Practice Of Long Standing. It Is Said By Diodorus That The Great Temple Of Belus At Babylon Was Built For Astronomical Purposes, And, Since There Is Indication In The Chinese Records That The Gnomon Was Used For Measuring ...

Observer Corps In Air
Observer Corps In Air Defence. At The Be Ginning Of The World War The Requirements Of Air Defence Had Hardly Been Considered, But Very Soon The Importance Of Knowing The Movements Of The Hostile Aircraft Became Evident. The Infor Mation Was Required Both For Purposes Of Active Defence, And Also ...

Obsidian
Obsidian, A Glassy Volcanic Rock Of Acid Composition. Rhy Olitic Lavas Frequently Are Vitreous, And When The Glassy Matter Greatly Predominates And The Crystals Are Few And Inconspicuous The Rock Becomes An Obsidian; The Chemical Composition Is Essen Tially The Same As That Of Granite ; The Difference In The ...

Obstetrics Midwifery
Obstetrics (midwifery). Obstetrics, Together With Gynaecology (q.v.) And Paediatrics Cover The Greater Part Of The Reproductive Cycle (i.e., From The Parents Of One Generation To Those Of The Next), The Portion Falling Strictly Within The Sphere Of Obstetrics Being From Conception Through Pregnancy, Labour And Lying-in Up To The Time ...

Occleve
Occleve (or Hoccleve), Thomas (1368-1450?), Eng Lish Poet, Was Born Probably In 1368/9. What Is Known Of Oc Cleve's Life Has To Be Gathered Mainly From His Works. At Eighteen Or Nineteen He Obtained A Clerkship In The Privy Seal Office, Which He Retained On And Off, In Spite Of ...

Ocean And Oceanography
Ocean And Oceanography. "ocean" Is The Name Applied To The Great Connected Sheet Of Water Which Covers The Greater Part Of The Surface Of The Earth. But The Ocean Is Less Than The Hydrosphere In So Far As The Latter Term Includes Also The Water Lying On Or Flowing Over ...

Oceania
Oceania, A Geographical Area Extending From Australia, In The West, To The Most Easterly Islands Of Polynesia, In The East, And From New Zealand, In The South, To Micronesia And The Sand Wich Islands, In The North. Ethnologically The Area Is Divisible Into Six Principal Regions (q.v.) : Australia; Tasmania; ...

Octopus
Octopus, The Name Given In Zoology To A Single Genus Of Eight-armed Cephalopoda (q.v.), One Of Whose Distinguishing Characters Is The Presence Of Two Rows Of Suckers On Each Arm. As A Less Strictly Defined Term The Name May Be Given To All The Eight-armed Cephalopoda, Of Which Some 36 ...

Octroi
Octroi, A Local Tax Collected On Various Articles Brought Into A District For Consumption (0. Fr. Octroyer, To Grant, Author Ize; Lat. Auctor). The Prescribed Groups Of Commodities, Upon Which These In Direct Taxes Were Levied In 1927 By 1 ,09 2 Local Authorities In France (for The Alsace-lorraine Octroi ...

Odaenathus Or Odenatus
Odaenathus Or Odenatus (gr. 'obalpaoos, Palm, = "little Ear"), The Latinized Form Of Odainath, The Name Of A Famous Prince Of Palmyra, In The Second Half Of The 3rd Cen Tury A.d., Who Succeeded In Recovering The Roman East From The Persians And Restoring It To The Empire. He Belonged ...

Odenwald
Odenwald, A Wooded Mountain Region Of Germany, Al Most Entirely In Hesse, With Small Portions In Bavaria And Baden. It Stretches Between The Neckar And The Main, And Is 5o M. Long By 20 To 3o Broad. Its Highest Points Are The Katzenbuckel (2,057 Ft.), The Neunkircher Hohe (1,985 Ft.) ...

Odessa
Odessa, A Seaport Of The Ukrainian S.s.r., In 46° 29' N., 3o° 44' E., On The Southern Shore Of A Semi-circular Bay, At The North-west Angle Of The Black Sea. Pop. (1926) 411,416. It Has Five Harbours; The Quarantine, New Harbour, Pratique And Cabot Age Harbours Are Sheltered By Two ...

Odin Or Othin
Odin Or Othin, The Chief God Of The Northern Pantheon, Is Represented As An Old Man With One Eye. Frigg Is His Wife, Thor And Balder, Among Other Gods, Are His Sons. He Is Also Said To Have Been The Father Of Several Legendary Kings. His Exploits And Adventures Are ...

Odo Of Bayeux
Odo Of Bayeux (c. 1036-1097), Norman Bishop And English Earl, Was A Uterine Brother Of William The Conqueror, From Whom He Received, While Still A Youth, The See Of Bayeux (1049). But His Active Career Was That Of A Warrior And States Man. He Found Ships For The Invasion Of ...

Odoacer Or Odovacar
Odoacer Or Odovacar (c. The First Barbarian Ruler Of Italy, Son Of Aedico Or Idico, Was Born In The District Bor Dering On The Middle Danube About The Year 434. He Was Probably One Of The Tribe Of Scyrri Who Had Invaded Pannonia About 43o. It Is Said That As ...

Odonnell
O'donnell, The Name Of An Ancient And Powerful Irish Family, Lords Of Tyrconnel In Early Times, And The Chief Rivals Of The O'neills In Ulster. Like The Family Of O'neill (q.v.), That Of O'donnell Was Descended From Niall Of The Nine Hostages, King Of Ireland At The Beginning Of The ...

Odontornithes
Odontornithes, The Term Proposed By 0. C. Marsh For Birds Possessed Of Teeth (gr. 66obs, Tooth, Apvcs, 6pvtoos Bird), Notably The Genera Hesperornis And Ichthyornis From The Cretace Ous Deposits Of Kansas. In 1875 He Divided The "sub-class" Into Odontolcae, With The Teeth Standing In Grooves, And Odonto Tormae, With ...

Odoric
Odoric (c. 1286-1331), Styled "of Pordenone," One Of The Chief Travellers Of The Later Middle Ages, And A Beatus Of The Roman Church, Was Born At Villa Nuova, A Hamlet Near The Town Of Pordenone In Friuli, In Or About 5286. According To The Eccle Siastical Biographers, In Early Years ...

Odysseus
Odysseus (also Odyseus, Olys [s]eus, Lat. Vlixes, Where Of Ulysses Is A Mis-writing), One Of The Best-known Greek Heroes. (1). In Homer, He Is Son Of Laertes, King Of Ithaca, And Anticleia His Queen ; He Succeeds His Father As King, Is Husband Of Penelope (q.v.) And Father Of Telemachus. ...

Oedipus
Oedipus, The Central Figure Of The Theban Saga (gr. Oidi Pous, Probably "swell-foot"). In Homer We Are Told That He Un Wittingly Killed His Father And Married His Own Mother, Epikaste (the Jocasta Of Later Writers), And That She Hanged Herself When The Matter Became Known. Oedipus Continued, Though In ...

Offaly County
Offaly County, A County Of Ireland In The Province Of Leinster, Bounded North By Meath And Westmeath, West By Roscommon, Galway And Tipperary (the Boundary With The First Two Counties Being The River Shannon) ; South By Tipperary And Leix County, And East By Kildare. The Area Is 493,999 Acres ...

Office Appliances
Office Appliances. Many Office Tasks, Being Of A Repetitive Character, Naturally Adapt Themselves To The Principle Of "division Of Labour," And Consequently To The Use Of Machinery Also. But These Facts Alone Are Not Sufficient Justification For The Purchase Of Appliances. Four Purposes Are Considered By Good Office Management In ...