RAKOVSKY, CHRISTIAN GEORGIEVICH ), Russian politician and diplomat, of Bulgarian descent and Rumanian nationality, was born on Aug. 13, 1873 at Kotel, Bul garia. His father's home in the Dobruja passed after the Russo Turkish war to Rumania, and the family became Rumanian. Ra kovsky's Bulgarian ancestors, especially his grandfather, had or ganized risings against the Turkish rule, and the revolutionary traditions of the family were revived in Christian Rakovsky. In 1890 on account of his socialist activities all appointments in Bul garian schools were closed to him. He therefore went to Geneva, where he joined the international social democratic student move ment, and came in contact with Plekhanov and other Russian social democrats; and also to Germany, where he met Liebknecht. He was expelled from Prussia in 1894; went to France, where he graduated as a doctor of medicine at Montpellier, and wrote his thesis on The Etiology of Criminality and Degeneration (1897). Returning to Bulgaria, he recommenced revolutionary activi ties, and in Russia in the East (1898) denounced Tsarist poli tics. In 190o he served as an officer in the Rumanian army. Dur ing the peasant riots of 1907 he was expelled from Rumania, his title to Rumanian citizenship not being considered adequate, and his civil rights were only restored in 1912. The five years of Rakovsky's exile were interrupted by illicit homecomings and consequent labour troubles.
After Rumania entered the World War Rakovsky was arrested and imprisoned in various places, and finally at Jassy, whence he was released by the Russians on May 1, 1917. After the Soviets came into power in November he became a member of the central executive committee of the Union, and in 1919 he became a member of the central committee of the Communist party. Rakovsky was well known as a writer on political and economic subjects under the pen name of "Insarov," and a num ber of his books were written and published in Russia (Modern France, 19oo; Metternich and His Time, etc.).
Rakovsky's diplomatic career began with his appointment as head of the delegation entrusted with the peace negotiations with the Ukrainian central rada. In 1919 he was appointed president of the soviet of people's commissars of the Ukraine, and in 1922 represented Russia at the conference of Genoa. In 1924 he was the Soviet charge d'affaires in London, and as such negotiated a treaty between the Soviets and the British Government. The treaty, however, was rejected by the succeeding Conservative ad ministration. In 1926-27 he was Soviet ambassador to France. In 1927 he was recalled from his post. His support of Trotsky led, in 1928, to his expulsion from the Communist party and exile to Stalingrad. He was re-admitted in 1934, and became a depart mental chief in the Commissariat of Health.