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Poultry and Game

bird, birds, roast, skin, stuffed and sauce

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POULTRY AND GAME. The term poultry includes fowls, ducks (domestic), turkeys, guinea fowl and geese; the word game is usually applied to wild duck, partridges, grouse, pheasants, quails, deer (venison) and other edible wild birds and beasts. Rabbits, hare and pigeons are usually classed with game.

Poultry and game may be cooked in a variety of ways: roasted; boiled ; grilled ; stewed in various forms ; boned and made into galantines; baked in pies, puddings, vol-au-vents, pasties, etc.; combined with cereals, jellies and special sauces, or pounded and used for spreading on pastry or bread and butter.

Preparation of Game and Poultry.

Poultry and feathered game should be plucked and then singed to remove any stray hairs or feathers. It is easier to pluck poultry when warm. The neck is cut off at the shoulder, leaving the skin. There are two ways to draw poultry. The English loosen the skin around the vent with the point of a knife, lay the bird on a board, back uppermost, make a small incision in the skin of the neck length wise, insert the fingers through the opening and draw out the entrails, being careful to avoid breaking the gall. Americans cut a slit from the vent of about two inches and draw out the entrails from there. The gizzard, from which the inner bag has been removed, heart and liver are saved for giblet gravy or used in the stuffing. The bird is then washed thoroughly inside and out with cold water. Chop off the ends of the claws and fold back the pinions in the form of a triangle; turn the bird over and bend back the legs towards the neck. Either pin in place with a skewer (if a small bird) or use a trussing needle and stitch through the bird under the knee-bones, at the same time, securing the flap and pinions. Birds which need larding should then be covered with bacon fat.

Roasting.

Birds which require stuffing should be filled with a suitable forcemeat (chopped meat, spiced and seasoned) which ought, if possible, to include the pounded liver of the bird. Tur keys and large fowls (capons) are frequently stuffed with veal and ham forcemeat flavoured with lemon peel and nutmeg or with chestnuts ; geese and ducks with sage and onions chopped finely and mixed with other forcemeat ingredients, and ducks are occasionally stuffed with prunes and apples. Roast wild duck,

widgeon, teal and most small game birds are generally served with out stuffing, though pheasants may be stuffed with chestnuts. To keep game birds moist while cooking, a small piece of butter or rump steak is often placed inside the bird. Small birds should be protected with a buttered paper or larding. To roast very small birds, e.g., larks, place them on a skewer.

The best way to roast a haunch of venison is to wrap it in buttered paper and seal this over with a flour and water paste. Ordinary dripping is used for basting poultry and venison, but butter is preferable for basting game birds. About 10-20 minutes before poultry and game have finished cooking remove buttered paper or larding and dredge with flour.

A good gravy with roast poultry or game is essential. Stuffed birds need a thickened gravy. Bread, cranberry, mushroom or chestnut sauce may be served with turkey, and sausages or bacon is a common addition. Roast fowl, pheasant, partridge and grouse are all usually accompanied by rashers of bacon and bread sauce. Water-cress is used as a garnish. Fried breadcrumbs are served with partridge, pheasant and grouse. Red currant jelly should always accompany roast venison and hare. Apple sauce is substituted for bread sauce in serving roast goose.

Poultry is boned and stuffed to form a galantine. Remove the head and feet ; then draw the bird. Divide the skin down the back with a sharp knife and turn down the flesh from the ribs, breast and side bones, leaving these as bare as possible. Pull legs and wings carefully out at the sockets, cutting the sinews through with a knife, and turn these inside out with the rest of the outside skin. Free the skeleton and turn the skin outwards again. Stuff the bird to restore its original shape.

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