NORTHERN RHODESIA Northern Rhodesia formerly consisted of two distinct pro vinces, North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia. The combined area is 287,95o sq. miles. The country includes much of the land lying between the Zambezi and the Congo. It is bounded on the north and north-east by the Belgian Congo, Lake Tanganyika and Tanganyika Territory, on the east and south east by Nyasaland and Portuguese East Africa, on the south-east and south by Southern Rhodesia, on the west by Angola, and on the north-west and north by the Belgian Congo.
Much of the country consists of high plateau, the Congo-Zambezi watershed rising, in places, to 5,000 feet. The highest land forms a ridge known as the Muchinga mountains, running north-east to south-west, to the south-east of Lake Bangweulu. Still higher land occurs in the Tanganyika District, near the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. In the valleys of the Lower Zambezi, the Luangwa and the Kafue, the altitude falls below 3,00o feet. Within the territory lie Lake Bangweulu (q.v.) and half of Lake Mweru (q.v.).
A large part of the region is covered with tropical or sub-tropical savannah. The tall tropical forests of the West African type are poorly represented, and occur chiefly near Lake Tanganyika. The country is fairly well pro vided with big game. Elephants are to be found in nearly all localities ; hippopotami occur in all the larger rivers; the black rhinoceros and giraffe must be included, and large herds of eland, roan antelope, hartebeeste and zebra are to be seen. A list of all the animals would be a long one, but it would include sable ante lope, waterbuck, lechwe, sitatunga, impala, reed buck, bush buck, oribi, duiker, etc. Lions are not uncommon. Game reserves have been established, and some of the rarer animals are protected.
Northern Rhodesia is administered by a gov ernor, assisted by an executive council of five official members. For its constitution see the section Rhodesian History.
The European population in December 1929 was 9,981, and the native population over a million. The natives be long to over 5o different tribes, among the chief of which, numeri cally, are the Awemba, Achewa, Angoni, Asenga, Awisa, Alala, Batoka, Barozi, Baila, Baleaye, Bakaonde, etc.
Over much of the country, owing to the occurrence of tsetse fly, transport is done by human porters. On parts of the Zambezi and Luapula, and in the swamps about Lake Bangweulu, native canoes are used. The country is traversed by a
railway, linking with Southern Rhodesia and South Africa, and running through Livingstone and Broken Hill to Elisabethville and the Belgian Congo. Roads are few, but a motor road runs from Fort James on to Blantyre.
The economic development by Europeans is, of course, dependent on transport facilities. Within 3om. of the rail way in the Batoka and Luangwa districts, farms have been taken up, and maize is the chief crop, though tobacco, cotton, fibre, etc., are also grown. Cattle ranching appears to be successful near the Kafue and in the Kalomo area. Tobacco cultivation is being de veloped about Fort Jameson, and its extension will be helped by railway development in Nyasaland. A few farms have also been alienated in the Tanganyika district, where cattle thrive, but there is, as yet, no outlet for the produce of this area, until de velopment in Tanganyika Territory provides a way from the lake to Dar-es-Salaam. Hopes are entertained for the development of the northern part of the Kasempa District, which will have a market at Elisabethville, and will receive an impetus on the com pletion of the Lobito Bay railway. Mining is carried on at Broken Hill, where lead and zinc deposits occur, and at the Bwana M'kuba copper mine. The total value of the mineral production in 1926 was £111,560.
There are six Government schools of primary grade, three farm schools, and one aided school for Europeans. There is a Government school for natives at Mongu, and many mission schools. In the Lusaka area Afrikaans is taught. Malaria, blackwater fever and dysentery are not uncom mon, and sleeping sickness occurs in the Luangwa valley.
The country is divided into two parts. (I) The "Congo Basin" comprises that part of North-Eastern Rhodesia lying to the north-west of the Muchinga mountains. It is in cluded in the conventional zone of the Congo, and no preference may be given to the imported products of any country. The duty on imports does not exceed i o% ad valorem. (2) The "Zambezi Basin" is a party to the South African customs agreement. South African produce, except spirits and manufactured tobacco, is admitted free of duty. Goods may be imported in bond through South Africa or Southern Rhodesia, which allows British goods to benefit by lower import duties than those entering the Union of South Africa.
See the annual reports on Northern Rhodesia issued by the British Colonial office. (R. U. S.)