RICHMOND, a municipal borough in Surrey, England, 9 m. W.S.W. of Charing Cross, London. Pop. (1931) 37,791. It lies on the right bank of the Thames, which is here crossed by a bridge carrying the main road to Twickenham. Richmond was anciently called Syenes and afterwards Schene and Sheen (a name pre served in the village of East Sheen, adjacent on the London side) until the name was in 1500 changed to Richmond by command of Henry VII., who was earl of Richmond in Yorkshire. It grew up round the royal manor house, of which nothing but a gateway remains. Edward I. received the Scotch commissioners at his manor of Sheen in 1300. The palace was rebuilt by Edward III., who died here in 1377. It was frequently used by Richard II., who afterwards caused it to be demolished. By Henry V., how ever, it was rebuilt, and a great tournament was held here in 1492 by Henry VII., who after its destruction by fire in 1498 restored it. Henry VIII. gave it to Wolsey to reside in, after the latter presented him with the new palace of Hampton Court. James I.
settled it on his son Henry, prince of Wales, who restored it. Charles I. added to it the new deer park, Richmond park, 2,253 acres in extent surrounded by a wall. After the execution of the king, the parliament presented the park to the citizens of London, who again presented it to Charles II. at the Restoration. Though partly dismantled, the palace was the residence of the queen dowager till 1665, but it was parcelled into tenements about 7 20. In the old deer park extending northwards from the site of the palace, Kew Observatory was erected in 1769, occupying the site of a Carthusian convent founded by Henry V. The White Lodge was built by George I. To the south-east of the town is Rich mond hill with its famous view of the Thames. A theatre, first established in 1719, was during his later years leased by Edmund Kean. Richmond was incorporated in 1890.