SALZBURG, the capital of the German province of Salz burg and formerly of the archbishopric of the same name, lies on both banks of the Salzach where this river leaves its narrow valley through the limestone Alps and enters the Alpine fore land. The situation is important economically and strategically, for here several types of physical region, with differing agricul tural possibilities, meet and the Orient route from Germany through Munich joins the Orient route from France through Switzerland and branches along the Salzach valley and through the Hohe Tauern to Carinthia and Italy. The site has been occu pied since pre-Roman time, the original settlement being replaced by a Roman trading town (Juvavum) which was sacked by the barbarians (477). The modern city grew up around the monas tery and bishopric founded here about 700 by St. Rupert of Worms, who preached Christianity in the district at the invita tion of its ruler Duke Theodo of Bavaria, and its history from that time is closely bound up with that of the see. The present name, due to the local abundance of salt, appears first in 816 by which time it had been raised to an archbishopric. Its arch bishops gained in temporal power and dignity and were made im perial princes by Rudolf of Hapsburg in 1278.
Relations between the ecclesiastical rulers on the one hand and the nobles and people on the other were always difficult, e.g., during the Peasants' War of 1525-26, quelled with the aid of the Swabian League, and contributing to a reaction against the church when Salzburg became a stronghold of resistance to the Ref orma tion. Persecution was rife and Protestant citizens were driven from the town. Nevertheless, the movement grew and in 1731 32, aided by the intervention of Frederick William I. of Prussia, 30,00o people sold their possessions and left the see, 6,000 of them leaving the capital. By the peace of Luneville (1802) the see was secularized and given to the archduke of Austria. Fol
lowing the peace of Pressburg (1805) it fell to Austria but four years later passed to Bavaria, returning to Austria in 1816 with the exception of a small portion on the left bank of the Salzach —by the peace of Paris. In 1849 the province became a crown land, several of its districts being transferred to Tirol, and re mained so until 1918.
Salzburg abounds in objects and buildings of interest. Its ecclesiastical traditions are exemplified by eight convents and twen ty-five churches, the majority interesting from their antiquity, architecture or associations. Of these, the 17th century cathe dral, one of the largest and most perfect specimens of the Renais sance style in the Germanic countries, is on the model of St. Peter's at Rome. Though situated in the old town it is bounded on three sides by open squares, which permit its beauties to be appreciated. Other buildings of note are the old and new resi dences of the archbishops, the latter occupied by government offices, the present palace, the 15th century town-hall and the Mozart house and museum. The only relic of the university (1623-181o) is a theological seminary. By the suppression of its university Salzburg has been prevented from making that con tribution to Austrian culture that its importance as an adminis trative and spiritual centre leads one to expect.
Salzburg to-day has a heavy seasonal tourist traffic, favoured by a healthy climate and delightful scenic surroundings, but to this it adds permanent occupations involving a number of small manufactures, e.g., brewing, book-binding, the manufacture of musical instruments and marble wares and light iron goods, and the administrative functions customary to a provincial capital. Pop.