SCHWARZENBERG, KARL PHILIPP, PRINCE RINCE ZU Austrian field marshal, was born on April 15, 1771, at Vienna. He entered the imperial cavalry in 1788, fought in 1789 under Lacy and Loudon against the Turks, distinguished himself by his bravery, and became major in 1792. At Cateau Cambresis in 1794 his brilliant charge at the head of his regiment, vigorously supported by 12 British squadrons, earned him the cross of the Maria Theresa order. After taking part in the battles of Amberg and Wiirzburg in 1796 he was promoted major-gen eral, and in 1799 lieutenant field marshal. At Hohenlinden in 1800 his promptitude and courage saved the right wing of the Austrian army from destruction, and he afterwards commanded the rearguard. In 1805 he commanded a division under Mack, and when Ulm was surrounded by Napoleon in October he was one of the brave band of cavalry, under the archduke Ferdinand, which cut its way through the hostile lines. In the same year he was made a commander of the order of Maria Theresa and in 1809 he received the Golden Fleece.
In 1808 he was sent on a mission to St. Petersburg (Leningrad) but returned in time to take part in the battle of Wagram, and was soon afterwards promoted general of cavalry. After the Peace of Vienna he was sent to Paris to negotiate the marriage between Napoleon and the archduchess Maria Louisa. The prince
gave a ball in honour of the bride on July 1, 181o, which ended in the tragic death of many of the guests, including his own sister in-law, in a fire. Napoleon held Schwarzenberg in great esteem, and it was at his request that the prince took command of the Austrian auxiliary corps in the Russian campaign of 1812. In 1813 Schwarzenberg, recently promoted field marshal, was appointed commander-in-chief of the allied Grand Army of Bo hemia against France. As such he was the senior of the allied generals who conducted the campaign of 1813-14 to the final victory before Paris and the overthrow of Napoleon. He has been accused of timidity and over-caution but he was always hampered by political considerations : his victory, however achieved, was as complete as Austria desired. His many rewards included the posi tion of president of the Hofkriegsrath, and, as a specially re markable honour, the right to bear the arms of Austria as an escutcheon of pretence. In 1820, when revisiting the battle-field of Leipzig, he was attacked by a stroke, and died there on Oct. 15.