SCHAFFHAUSEN, the most northerly Swiss canton, lying almost wholly north of the Rhine, which, in part, separates it from the cantons of Zurich and Thurgau. On the other sides it is surrounded by Baden, portions of which separate the canton into three detached portions; the largest is the region near the chief town, Schaffhausen. Southwards, the small lowland isolated district of Riidlingen and Buchberg was purchased in 1520, and Zurich, in 1798, ceded a slightly more extensive eastward tract around the old town of Stein. The territory contains two tiny Baden "enclaves," of which the village of BUsingen and the small tract of land surrounding it is the larger and more important. The total area of the canton is (1923-24 determinations) 115 sq.m., of which the high proportion of 95.3% are classed as "productive" (forests covering 45.5 sq.m., and vineyards 1.3 sq.m.). The dominant land feature is the plateau of Randen—Hohe Randen summit 2,998 ft., is on the northern boundary—sloping gently southwards to the Rhine and intersected by short glens such as Klettgau (west of Schaffhausen) which carry intermittent water torrents. The Rhine i m. below the capital is a stream 37o ft. wide, interrupted by the famous falls (Laufen), which, though of small height (6o ft.), are of considerable grandeur; they are ex ploited for hydro-electric power. The capital is an important railway junction. It is on the main line from Constance to Basle which traverses the canton, and also has normal railway linkages with Friedrichshafen (Lake of Constance), and Zurich (2 lines). Schleitheim (north-west) is connected to it by a light railway.
vine growing ; its well managed forests are also a considerable source of revenue. The manufacture of watches and jewellery is also assuming considerable importance. Schaffhausen (pop.
21,118) is the only large town. Neuhausen (6,450) near the Rhine falls has an important aluminium works. There are six adminis trative districts containing 36 communes. The Cantonal Con stitution dates from 1876. The legislature (Grossrat) is composed of 78 members elected (by the system of absolute majority) for four years in the proportion of one to every 600 residents. The executive (Regierungsrat) of five members is also elected for four years by a popular vote, as are the two members of the Federal Stiinderat and the three members of the Federal Nationalrat.
Since 1876, any i,000 electors have the right of "initiative," both for legislative projects and for the revision of the Cantonal Con stitution. Since 1895 the "obligatory referendum" for all legis lative projects and financial resolutions has prevailed. Taxation is light, for the public cantonal property, e.g., forests, is the most considerable in Switzerland and the area is particularly prosperous. The canton, admitted into the Confederation in 1501, arose from acquisitions made at various dates by the town; the chief of these were the outlying estates of the ecclesiastical foundations sup pressed at the time of the Reformation. Of historical interest in this connection is the little town of Stein-am-Rhein (pop.
2,113) with its Benedictine monastery (1005-1526)—now re stored to form a museum of antiquities—and Hohenklingen—the castle of the feudal lords of Stein—towering above it.