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Semarang

residency, coast and java

SEMARANG, a residency of Java, Dutch East Indies, oc cupying a good deal of the north-central portion of the island; area about 11,300 sq.m. (Rembang residency was divided almost equally between Semarang and Surabaya residencies in 1928). Semarang is bounded on the west by Pekalongan, north and east by the Java sea, Kedu and Rembang residencies, and south by Surakarta and Madiun. Its western half is flat along the coast, sloping gradually to high hills some distance inland, and culminat ing in mountains, especially where the residency cuts, tooth-like, into Surakarta, and the Merbabu complex of mountains. This half is abundantly watered by rivers, the most important of which are the Lusi and the Tuntang, and is a great sugar and kapok pro ducing region (having a sugar experimental station), also a coffee growing centre. The eastern half has a strip of flat land by the coast (Juwana and Japara plains), then limestone hills, and, in the west, the isolated mountain mass of Muria, and the fertile valley of the Lusi, running between the hills and the mountains of central Java on the southern edge of the residency. This half

is noted for its teak forests and its extensive petroleum deposits, Chepu, on the eastern border, being a great refining centre; iodide of copper is also found. Population of the residency, since the Rembang addition, 2,011,616, almost entirely Javanese. The capital is Semarang (q.v.), in the west, and the next most important town is Kendal also on the west coast, pop. Most of the other towns are located far inland, such as Ambarawa, Salatiga, Gundih, Demak, the "Mecca of Java" (see JAVA), Purwadadi and Blora. The railway from Semarang to Surakarta runs through the residency as far as Gundih, and the steam tram way from Cheribon to Surabaya traverses the coast from the western boundary very near Kendal to Semarang, thence across country to a short distance beyond Rembang, and from that place south-eastwards to the eastern boundary. Semarang was subject to Dutch rule, under a governor (the governor of the north-east coast, as he was styled), from 1748 onwards, his head quarters being at the town of Semarang. (E. E. L.)