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Surabaya

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SURABAYA (Dutch Soerabaja), the chief port and naval station in Java, D.E. Indies ; pop. (1930), 341,675, including 26,463 Europeans. One of the most important centres of trade and commerce in the Far East, Surabaya is situated in the east of Java, on Surabaya strait, which divides Java from Madura, thus securing the shelter of that island for its roadstead, whilst its position on the Kali Mas, one of the mouths of the Brantas river, affords facility for transportation to the heart of the city. From the entrance to Surabaya the lofty ranges of the Tengger and Arjuna mountains are seen with Semeru, the highest active volcano in Java, in the far distance. A look-out station, Wilhel mina Tower, flanked by a small park is situated at the river's mouth and from here railway, steam tramway and road run in land, in a southerly direction, past the old Ft. Prins Hendrik, to, first the old town, then the upper town, and beyond that to the suburbs of Gubeng and Wonokromo, where a new residential and well-planned Surabaya is fast arising. It has electric trams and light, taxi-cabs, telephone system, cable communication with Batavia, Semarang, and Balik Papan, in Borneo, and an air ser vice to Batavia.

Surabaya's interests are wholly naval and commercial. The naval station on the south side of the canalized Kali Mas, with the commercial docks opposite, consists of an outer and inner naval basin, with torpedo boat harbour, dock-yards and cholera bar racks. The commercial port consists of breakwaters on the west side of the Kali Mas enclosing a harbour basin. Alongside the west pier of the basin is a wharf, 92o metres (Genoa Quay), and the Holland pier, 1,650 metres long. The eastern part of the basin is for lighters, and in the north-eastern corner there is a harbour for three floating docks of 14,000, 3,500 and tons capacity, also, north of the Genoa Quay, a wharf for the tankers of the Standard Oil Company. On the west border of the basin a new shipping canal has been made, the Kali Perak, and the Kali Mas has been improved as much as possible by widening and the construction of stone walls along the banks. All quays and warehouses are connected by direct, wide roads and railways with industrial centres in the hinterland.

Exports from Surabaya in 1926 were 212,352,634, and imports 204,817,021 guilders. The bulk of the chief product of Java, sugar, is sold in Surabaya, with a few exceptions, all the sugar estates on the island being amalgamated in the Java Sugar Pro ducers' Association at Surabaya, which is the central sales' agency for sugar. It is also an important market for coffee, tobacco, maize

and tapioca, whilst the Java hides are sold there chiefly. There is steamer communication with the chief ports of the world and with most of the ports of the archipelago; lying on the main route from Singapore and Batavia to Australia, Surabaya also benefits from this traffic. (E. E. L.) SURABAYA, a residency in the east of Java, D.E. Indies; area, 3,527 sq.m. East Java has recently been reorganized and the residency of Surabaya is now bounded on the north by the resi dency of Bodjonegow, on the west by that of Kediri, on the south by that of Malang, and on the east by the Straits of Madura. Surabaya is one of the flattest residencies in Java, well watered by the Solo and the Brantas, and possessing a soil admirably adapted for the cultivation of sugar, the chief product, whilst tobacco, cassava (tapioca), coffee, coca, are grown, and the usual native crops—rice, pulses, fruit and vegetables. Cattle are bred extensively, forests in the western and Rembang portion yield quantities of teak (there is a central lumber yard at Chepu), and in this part too are extensive oil-fields with a large refining installation of the Dordrecht Petroleum Company at Chepu. The population, excluding Rembang, is 1,904,674, almost entirely Javanese. The capital is Surabaya, pop. 341,675 (q.v.) Other towns are Grissee, 25 m. N. of Surabaya (pop. 25,621), a port of the old Dutch East India Company, and one of the first places of Dutch settlement in Java, where there is a trade in edible birds' nests; Mojokerto (pop. 23,60o), a sugar industry centre, and the site of the Majapahit empire, with a museum of relics; Jumbang (pop. 20,380), a sugar centre; Lamongan and Sidoarjo. The main railway line from Batavia crosses the residency, there are lines from Semarang to Surabaya City and thence to Pasuruan along the coast, and there is also excellent sea communication from the port of Surabaya. In 1618 the Dutch allied themselves with the Adipati of Surabaya, who favoured the Dutch against his overlord, the Sultan Ageng, and this helped to establish Dutch power in Surabaya. (E. E. L.)