TOUL, a garrison town of north-eastern France, in the de partment of Meurthe-et-Moselle, 21 TM W. of Nancy on the Eastern railway. Pop. (1931) 10,412. Toul (Tullum) was origi nally capital of the Leuci, in the Belgic Confederation, and ac quired great importance under the Romans. It was evangelized by St. Mansuy in the 4th century, and became one of the lead ing sees of north-east Gaul. After being sacked successively by Goths, Burgundians, Vandals and Huns, Toul was conquered by the Franks in 450. Under the Merovingians it was governed by counts, assisted by elective officers. The bishops became sover eign counts in the loth century, holding only of the emperor, and for 30o years (13th to i6th centuries) the citizens maintained a long struggle against them. Together with Verdun and Metz, the town and its domain formed the territory of the Trois Eveches. Toul was forced to yield for a time to the count of Vaudemont in the 12th century, and twice to the duke of Lor raine in the 15th. Charles V. made a solemn entry into the town in 1544, but in 1545 it placed itself under the perpetual protec tion of the kings of France. Henry II. took possession of the Trois-Eveches in 1552, but the territory was not officially incor porated with France till 1648. Henry IV. was received in state
in 1603, and in 1637 the parlement of Metz was transferred to Toul. In 1700 Vauban rebuilt the fortifications of the town. In 1790 the bishopric was suppressed and the diocese united to that of Nancy. Toul capitulated in 1870.
The church of St. Etienne, which was formerly a cathedral, has a choir and transept of the 13th century; the nave and aisles are of the 14th, and the fine facade of the last half of the 15th. There are two western towers. The two large lateral chapels of the nave are in the Renaissance style. South of the church there is a fine cloister of the end of the 13th century which was much damaged at the Revolution. The church of St. Gengoult, chiefly late 13th or early 14th century, has a facade of the 15th century and a 16th century cloister in Flamboyant Gothic., The hotel-de-ville occupies a building of the 18th century, once the episcopal palace. Toul is the seat of a sub-prefect. The industries include the manufacture of porcelain ; trade is in wine and brandy.