DOMESTIC ARCIIITECTURE, that department of' the art which relates especially to the design and erection of edi fices adapted to private purposes as distinguished from those erected for public uses, more particularly of such as are em ployed as private dwellings. Although holding an inferior position in the scale when compared with other branches of the art, domestic architecture is of sufficient importance at the present day to merit the greatest attention of the profes sional man. Amongst the ancients this department held a very low position, all the energies of the architect being em ployed on the public buildings and temples. Such a term would scarcely have been understood amongst the Greeks and Egyptians, and but little atnongst the earlier Romans, their private dwellings scarcely deserving the name of buildings. As luxury increased at Rome, the houses of private indivi duals increased in size and magnificence, as well as in accom modation, and the country-residences of the higher classes scent to have been buildings of some importance ; Pliny's villa contained thirty-seven apartments on the ground-floor.
Specimens of Roman houses exist at Herculaneum and Pompeii, as well as some few elsewhere. There is a villa at Bignor in Sussex, which contains 74 rooms, and covers an area 030 feet in length, by 335 feet in breadth.
Of English Domestic architecture, we need say little in this place; the term can scarcely be applied to any habitable buildings erected previous to the reign of henry VII., and the buildings of this date will be dilated upon when treating of the style known, after the name of the reigning family, as the Tudor style. Up to the period in which this style pre vailed, all the larger residences in England were fortified more or less. For an account of the earlier of these. edifices we refer to CASTLES. See also HOUSE, TUDOR or ELIZA BETHAN ARCHITECTURE, VILLA, ROMAN ARCHITECTURE, &c.