DRAWING, in its strict meaning, may be defined as the art of representing objects, on any convenient surface, by lines describing their form and contour. This is independent of colour, and even of shadow ; because, notwithstanding form may be expressed by outline alone, shadow, while giving surface and substance, must be dependent upon form, and, in many cases, requires to be accurately defined accord ing to the rules of perspective.
Before proceeding to describe the process of ordinary architectural drawing, we shall venture to insert some caustic, though just observations of Mr. Bartholomew, on this neces sary study.
" There is no small boasting, in the present day, of archi tectural drawing. An architect cannot draw too well ; but when he obtains much practice, he will find, that, besides designing the form and the details of his works, he has little. time for drawing ; in general, he has as little time for making the clean and fair copies of his drawings as the sculptor has for the stone-eutting department of his art ; while, if he cannot design, and is unacquainted with the other many branches of knowledge which he should possess, he should cease to call himself an architect.
" In making drawing his sole study, (but with the inter ruptions which business will naturally bring,) the pupil becomes only a bad artist, and no architect at all. The pernicious folly of imagining, that he who can make an architectural drawing must of necessity be able to make an architectural building, has wrought largely towards the ruin of real architecture, and has tended more than any thing else to fill our metropolis, and other places, with white-washed and even stone ruins, which the weak have mistaken lbr architecture, and has led to that general disregard to struc tu•al propriety, which is the besetting sin of modern works.
"Now, the time spent in learning to draw badly ; a work without truth, without philosophy, without art, without structural excellence, without geometrical ground-work, without adaptation to its purpose, without real beauty, either abstract or obvious ; this time, so misemployed, might have been successfully employed by him (were architectural edu cation such as it should be) in, by the age of twenty-five or thirty years at the utmost, learning thoroughly all the known arts of trussing, of roofing, of vaulting, of doming, of framing arches, pyramids, and all other parts of architecture in structural perfection. This safe ground-work, with the
necessary growth of mind, expansion of power, freedom of ability, would lead the professing architect to soar aloft, over all the chained spirits who fimey a few water-colours alone can raise them above San Micheli and Palladio—above Wren and Chambers. They know they cannot surpass Rallhello and Bnonarotti in drawing ; yet they do not consider that they might with ease surpass them both in architectural de sign and construction : thus they choose that competition in which they cannot sueceed, and neglect the one in which they might gain an easy victory. They might be the first of architects, but they choose rather to be the last of artists: instead of gazing with an astonished ignorance upon ancient buildings, they might as much surpass them as the science of the moderns surpasses that of the ancients.'—' Bartholo mew's Specifications for Practical Architecture.' However severe these strictures may appear, there is great truth in them, and they deserve the serious attention of the student.
Drawing is the basis of architecture, engraving, and painting ; and may be divided into outlines and shadowing. The outline, or contour, represents the boundaries of an object, as they appear to terminate against the back ground ; the outline, as its name implies, takes in all the parts of the boil;. The interior parts are marked by lines, if such be distinct on the body, and the different inclinations of the surfitce are defined by depth of colour, in proportion to the inclination.