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Drops

doric, soffits, surface, vertical, mutules, pending and portico

DROPS, in architecture, small pendent cylinders, or the frustums of cones attached to a vertical surface, the axis of the cylinders or cones having also a vertical position, and their tipper ends attached to a horizontal surtlice.

Drops are used in the cornice of the Doric order under the mutules, and in the architrave under the triglyphs. Each mutule has three rows from front to rear, with six drops in each row, disposed at equal distances, in lines parallel to the front. The drops upon the architrave are also six feet under each trigylph, disposed also equidistantly. Drops in the form of frustums of cones, arc only peculiar to Roman architecture, and to sonic of the temples of R.estum ; there are some Grecian-Dories, however, wherein the drops in their vertical section have the upper part nearly parallel, and terminate below with a concavity, the part above being a tangent to the curve. In the the surface of the metopes is the same with that of the architrave. and the vertical surface of the trigylph projects at the same distance as the drops, which are hung from the tenia. In the Grecian Doric, the faces of the triglyphs are generally disposed in the same vertical surface with the face of the epistylium, and consequently, the regula and drops pending therefrom project. The Doric portico at Athens, the portico of Philip king of Macedon, and the temple of Apollo in the island of Delos, are instances wherein the surface of the epistyle is within the surface of the triglyph ; but it is to be observed, in the two latter examples, that there is a drop in each angle common to every return face. All examples of the Doric order, except the portico of the Agora, or Doric portico, at Athens, have the sides of eath extreme drop under the regula in the same vertical line as each edge of the triglyph above, and the whole six drops are contained within the perpendiculars, by producing the edges of the triglyphs.

In all the drops of the Doric architraves to be met with, the horizontal sections are circles, increasing towards the bottom of the drops, or of a cylindrical form, except in the instance of the temple of Apollo at Cora, in Italy, where the soffits of the drops in the architraves are inclined. It is

singular, that in this example, the drops pending from the corona are continued equidistantly without interruption in three rows, two behind the front row ; and that those pend ing from the corona are perfectly cylindrical, with level soffits, while those pending from the regula are conical. and have inclined soffits, which form an obtuse angle with the face of the epistyle. In the ehoragic monument of Thrasyll us, the tenia of the epistylium has a continued row of drops, but this example cannot be accounted a Doric order, having no other peculiarity to the Doric composition.

The drops pending from the soffits of the mutules, have their soffits in a plane parallel to the soffits of the mutules, and consequently, inclining ; while those of the cpistyle have their soffits in a horizontal plane.

The height of the drops in the cornice of the Doric portico at Athens, is little more than one quarter of their diameter, while those of the cpistyle have their height more than half their diameter.

In the peripteral temple at Paestum, the corona has no pending mutules, nor any drops. In the theatre of Marcellus at Rome, there are no mutules, the interstices between the drops are formed by excavating upwards into the soffit of the corona, and are covered on the front with a moulding, which has its soffit in the same inclined plane with the soffits of the drops, so that the drops show no geometrical elevation. In the enneastyle, or nine-column temple at Paestum, the cornice is destroyed, and the architrave seems to have been originally without either mutules or drops.

The term [palm is also applicable to what we have called drops.

)IZt )\' El) ASHLAR, a term used in Scotland fur chiseled, or random-tooled ashlar. It is the most inferior kind of hewn work used in building. It is true, that what is there called broached work, is sometimes done without being droved, but in good broached work, the face of the stone should he previously droved, and then broached. See the article AlAsoxitv.