EXCHANGE, a building where merchants resort to transact business. The principal coinmercial cities of Europe and America have edifices appropriated for this puTose, and the Bourses of Paris, Amsterdam. Antwerp, and other efaitinental cities, and the Exchatwes of London, Liverpool. New York, &e.. are distinguished for their beauty and convenience. In London there are three building.s of this kind; the Corn Exchange—the Coal Exchange—and the Exchange of London, pa,- cieelle,ice, the Boyal Exchange. The two first are appropriated to the particular branches of ciunmerce indicated by their names, and are more espe cially re cited to by persons therein engaged ; the Royal Exchange is the general place of assembling. at a certain hour of the day, of the merchants and traders of London. Here meet together men from all parts of the world. and here are settled transactions of commerce of a magnitude inconceivable by those unacquainted with the subject. There are few merchants in the city but make it a rule to attend the Exchange daily, or, as it is termed in commercial phrase ology, " to go on 'Change." We propose to give a brief description of each of these places of mercantile rendezvous.
The, CORN EXCHANGE is situated in Mark Lane, and con sists, in filet, of two buildings adjoining each other, and known respectively as the Old and New Corn Exchange. Business, however, is carried on in both, and together they are considered as the "Corn Exchange." The new building, as we have belbre observed, immedi ately adjoins the older one, which still continues to be made use of, and which may therefore with propriety be described here, if only for the purpose of affording some kind of comparison between the two. "The lower part of the structure is an open colonnade, whose pillars are of the modern Doric kind, but the entablature has a plaits frieze, and its architrave is singularly narrow for the order, or in deed for any order whatever. There are eight columns, with an iron palisadittg between them ; display ing, however, a very peculiar arrangement, four of them being placed in pairs, but in such a manner, that, beginning to reckon from the south end, we find them placed thus: first. a pair of columns at that angle, then three single columns. then another pair. and at the north angle another single eolumn, forming
altogether five inter-columns, corresponding with which are as many windows in each of the two stories forming the upper part of the building over the colonnade; which are linite plain, with the exception of the centre one on the first floor, which, in addition to other dressings, has a pediment." There, is no wall behind these columns, and the space within is open to the street, forming a court rather than a hall, the centre space of which is not covered by a roof. With this diErenee it resembles the similar part of the plan in the new building, having, as that has. throe intereolunins at each end, and live on each side; and it fin th-r IexC11,ldes if in the great depth of the ambulatory around it. The building, though little pretension to zirchiteetural e cAeopt, what it derk es 1111111 it col nuns allamI arr., nge ment, has, in its general eil'eet, a degree of picturesqueness both unusual and pleasing., especially as there is a semi, rams of columns between those in Trout and the a eeat of the Exchange its( If.
The corn Exchange was erect d in IS.25 f om the designs of Mr. G. Smith. the architect of St. Pie .'s S, hoof. and exhibits a very tasteful and oa of the Gr,eimi I )oi ic.
In point oldesign, this facade merits investigation, because, whatever else may be alleged against it, no one call object to it, that it is either a direct copy, or an eopies. that is, of parts entirely borrowed from other build ings, other novelty than what they derive from their combination with each other.
The mlonnade forming the centre, (which bein, an hexastyle in antis, gives the same number of intereoluinns as an oetostyle.) does not constitute a loggia, or even a mere corridor ; fur. as may be seen by the plan, the space between the columns and the wall is occupied, except where the entrances occur, by a sunk area screened by the stylo bate. This area being barely equal to one diameter. the is m1011 shallower than usual, and theri. fbre likrly to be censured, on that account, by those who consider a certain depth of space behind the coronas to be au indis pensable requisite for their proper effect. and in' ariabl• demanded in all situations and under all circumstances.