Home >> Encyclopedia-of-architecture-1852 >> Entablature to Hip 1100f

Encyclopedia of Architecture by Peter Nicholson (1852)

Entablature
Entablature, (french, From The Latin Tabulatum, Stage, Or Story.) That Part Of An Order Which Is Supported By The Column Or Columns, And Forms The Covering Or Shelter To The Edifice. It Consists Of Three Principal Divisions, Viz., The Architrave, Which Rests Upon The Capitals Of The Columns ; The ...

Envelope
Envelope, (french,) The Covering Of A Portion Of The Surface Of A Solid, By Means Of A Thin Pliable Substance, Which Comes In Contact In All Points Or Parts With Such Surfiice. To Develope The Surface Of A Solid, Is To Find The Envelopes That Will Cover Its Different Parts. ...

Epicycli D
Epicycli D, In Geometry, A Curve Generated By The Revolution Of A Point In The Circumfe•,nce Of A Circle, While It Is Moved Round The Circumference Of Another Quiescent Circle In The Same Plane, So That In Each Circle, The Distance Between The Point Of Contact At The Commencement Of ...

Etruscan Architecture
Etruscan Architecture. The Method Of Build Ing Practised By The Ancient Inhabitants Of Etruria ; From Which It Is Supposed Many Of The Peculiarities Of Roman Architecture Took Their Rise, And The Tuscan Order Was Bor Rowed. The Origin And History Of This People Is Involved In Obscurity, As Is ...

Excavating
Excavating Al Al 'i I Ines, For Digging And Removing Earth In Extensive Excavations, Have Occupied The Attention °finally Ingenious Men, And Various Machines For The Purpose Have Been Proposed And Tried With Different Degrees Of Success. The Great Difficulty Seems To Consist In Adapting Any Peculiar ‘rrangement Of Mechanism ...

Exchange
Exchange, A Building Where Merchants Resort To Transact Business. The Principal Coinmercial Cities Of Europe And America Have Edifices Appropriated For This Putose, And The Bourses Of Paris, Amsterdam. Antwerp, And Other Efaitinental Cities, And The Exchatwes Of London, Liverpool. New York, &e.. Are Distinguished For Their Beauty And Convenience. ...

Expansion
Expansion, (from The Latin, Expando) That Degree Of Increment, Which A Body Is Susceptible Of Extending In One Or More Of Its Dimensions By Heat. Bodies Of Every Kind, As Far As Wo Are Acquainted With Them, Are Expanded In Bulk By Heat, And Are Contracted By Cold ; And ...

Experiment
Experiment, (from The Latin Experimentum,) A Trial, An Act, Or Operation Designed To Discover Sonic Unknown Truth, Principle, Or Effect, Or To Establish It When Discovered. In Philosophy, It Means The Result Of Certain Applications, Dis Positions, Or Combinations, Of Natural Bodies, Made With Sonic Particular View. The History Of ...

Experimental
Experimental Pill Losup I Philosophy, From The Greek Pkilosophia (10.(molna,) Literally Signifies "love Of Wisdom Or Knowledge," And A Philosopher, (otocroyhoc,) Is A Lover Of Wisdom. Py Thaguras Is Said To Have Been The First Person Who Called Himself Philosopher, From Which Appella Tion The Word Philosophy Was Derived, Meaning ...

Extension
Extension, In Philosophy, One Of The General And Essential Properties Of Matter; The Extension Of A Body Being The Quantity Of Space Which The Body Occupies, The Extremities Of Which Limit Or Circumscribe The Matter Of That Body. It Is Otherwise Called The Magnitude, Or Size, Or Bulk Of A ...

Farini
Farini. It Is Not W 411111 Our Province 1.0 Cuter 011 The Subject Of The Mangetnent Of A Farm ; But As The Construc Tion Of The Buildings Belonging To One Is Frequently Entrusted To Architects And Surveyors, Especially In A Country Practice, It Is Desirable To Oll'er A Few ...

Fire Proof Houses
Fire-proof Houses, Such As Are Built Without The Use Of Any Combustible Matter : For This Purpose, Vaulted Or East-iron Floors And Roofs Should He Employed In Every Apartment. Vailltinpt Is M Ell Adapted To The Lower Story Of A Building, Hut If Used In The Upper Stories, The Walling ...

Floor
Floor, In Carpentry, Includes Not Only The Boarding Walking Upon, But All The Timber-work For Its Support. Hoarded Floors Should Never Be Laid Till The Building Is Pro P( Rly Covered In, Nor Indeed Till The Windows Are Glazed, And He Plaster Dry. Previous To The Lying Of Such Floors, ...

Fontana
Fontana, Dt Minic, A Distinguished Architect, Horn In 1513. At A Village Cm The Lake Of Como. Having Acquit., D The Elements Of Co•metry. He Went To Where His Eld •r Brother John Was A Stmlent In Architecture. Here He Applied Himself Most Dillgently To The Study Of The Works ...

Force
Force, (from The Latin. Fortis, Strong) In Philosophy, The Cause Of Motion In A Body, When It Begins To Move, Or When It Changes Its Direction From The Course In Which It Was Previously.moving. While A Body Remains In The Same State, Whether Of Rest Or Of Uniform And Rectilinear ...

Force
Force, Direction Te, The Straight Line Which It Tends To Make A Body Describe. Fonces, Composition Of. If Two Forces He Conceived To Act On A Material Point, It Is Evident That If They Both Act In The Same Direction, They Will Mutually Increase Each Other's Effect ; But If ...

Forum
Forum, (latin) In Roman Antiquity, The Market-place For Transacting The Business Of The Public Revenue, Bankers, Merchants, &c. The Following Description Of It Is Given By Vitruvius: "the Greeks Made Their Forums Square, With Large Double Porticos, The Columns Close Together, And Ad,.rned With Stone Or Marble Epistyliums, Making Ambulatories ...

Fosses Daisances
Fosses D'aisances, A Term Used To Designate The Cesspools Of Paris. These Cesspools Are Constructed Of Materials Sufficiently Impermeable To Filtration, So That The Matter Contained In Them Shall Not Penetrate Through The Walls, To The Injury Of The Adjoining Property. So Strictly Is This Condition Observed, That Any Infiltration ...

Francis 11 Ansart
:11 Ansart, Francis, An Eminent French Architect, Born At Paris In 1598, Was Son Of The King's Carpenter, And Received Those Instructions Which Led Him To Eminence As An Architect, From The Celebrated Gautier ; But For The High Rank To Whice He Attained In His Profession, He Was Indebted ...

Francisco Borromini
Borromini, Francisco, Born In 1599, In Ilissone, Diocese Of Como. His Father Was An Architect, And Much Employed By The Casa, Or Family Of Visconti. Francisco Was Sent, At An Early Age, To Milan, To Study Sculpture ; And, At Seventeen Years Of Age, He Went To Roine To Be ...

Fresco Painting
Fresco Painting, A Peculiar Mode Of Painting, Per T I By Employ Ing Colours Mixed And Ground With Water Urn A Stucco, Or Plaster, Sufficiently Fresh And Wet To Imbibe And Embody The C(douis With Itself: The Term Fresco, As Applied To Painting. Is Said To Have Been Adopted Because ...

Fret
Fret Is Also Elaborate Carved-work, The Same As Entail. Friary, The Building Inhabited By A Fraternity Of Friars. Frieze, Or Frtize. (called By The Greeks Zoophortts) The Iniddle Principal Member Of The Entablature Which Separates The Co•nice Front The Architrave. The Frieze Was Supposed To Be Originally Firmed By The ...

Ga Imen
Ga Imen, Flanging, A Sort Of Ancient Garden, Which Is Said To Have Been Formed In A Raised Manner, On Arches, By Nebnehadnezzar King Of Babylon, With The View Of Gratify Ing His Wife Arnyetis, Who Was The Daughter Of Astyages, King Of Media. These Gardens Are Supposed By Quintus ...

Gablet
Gablet, A Small Gable ; An Ornament In Shape Like A Gable, Frequently Introduced Over Niches, But Tresses, &c. Gage, (french) In Carpentry And Joinery. An Instrument For Drawing One Or More Lines On Any Side An, Piece Of Stuff, Parallel To One Of The :arises Of That Side. There ...

Gang Way
Gang-way, A Temporary Stair, Made With Planks Set Edge To Edge Of Each Other, Having Transverse Pieces Of Wood Nailed Over For Steps ; Used Particularly By Masons, Brick Layers, And Carpenters, For Ascending Or Descending The Vari Ous Stories Of A Building, Beibre The Stairs Are Put Up. Gaol, ...

Gate
Gate, In Rural Economy, A Frame Of Wood Constructed With A Number Of Bars, And Fixed In Such A Manner As To Swing Upon Hinges, For The Purpose Of Affording Convenient Passage Into And Out Of Inclosed Grounds, Or Other Places. In The Constructing Of Gates, Of Whatever Kind Or ...

Gate_2
Gate, In Engineering, Is Applied To The Elose-boarded Doors Of Locks Or Sluices On Canals Or Rivers, For Penning Up The Water : In A Lock These Are Distinguished By Upper-gates And Lower-gates, According As They Are Placed At The Head Or Tail Of The Lock. Gate-housu, A Building Erected ...

Geometrical Construction
Geometrical Construction. From A Scale Of Equal Parts Draw A B = 276.5, And By The Protractor, Or Line Of Chords, Make Angle A 59°. Now The Triangle Cannot Be Constructed Without Having The Angle B J Therefore Subtract The Sum Of Angles A And C From 180° Which Gives ...

Geometry
Geometry, (from The Greek, Yewoel-pca, Formed Of Yea Or Earth, And Iterptm, To Measure) The Doctrine, Or Science Of Extension, Or Things Extended, Viz, Of Lines, Surfaces, Or Solids. Geometry Has Also Been Defined In General Terms As The Science Of Space. According To Ilerodotus, Strabo, And Diodorus, The Egyptians ...

Gizit Stone
Gizit-stone, A Stone Consisting Of Particles Of Sand Agglutinated Together. Of This Kind Of Stone There Are Many Varieties, Diffi•ring In The Size Of The Particles Of Sand T Hat Compose Them, The Several Properties Of These Sands, And Their Various Degrees Of Compactness And Agglutination. Some Of Them Are ...

Glass
Glass, (from The Saxon, Glues) A Hard, Brittle, Transparent Lactitions Substance, Formed By The Fusion Of Silicious Matter, Such As Powder Flint Or Fine Sand, Blended With Alkaline Ealth, Metallic Oxide, And Other Substances. In Building, Glass Is Used In Thin Transparent Plates For Windows, Which Admit Light, While They ...

Glazing
Glazing, The Business Of The Glazier, Consisting In Fitting Glass In Sashes, Frames, And Easements, And Fixing It Either In Putty Or Lead. It May Be Classed Under The Denominations Following :— Suslt-work, Lead-work, And Fret-work. The Tools Necessary For Sash-work Are, A Diamond, A Ranging-lath, A Short-lath, A Square. ...

Globe
Globe, (french) A Spherical Body, More Usually Called A Sphere. See Sphere. Glue, (from The French) A Tenacious Viscid Matter, Made Of The Skins Animals, Fiu• Cementing Two Bodies Together. Glue Is Bought In Cakes; And Is Better, As The Skin Of The Animal Froln Which It Is Made Is ...

Granary
Granary, A Building Contrived For Laying Up And Sto Ring In Order To Preserve It For A Length Of Time. The Construction Of This Class Of Buildings Has Not, We Believe, Received That Attention Which The Importance Of It Deserves, And We Coni:ider Therefore That Some Account Of The Proper ...

Granite
Granite, Corsirlia, Orhirithi•.—this Beautiful Rock (which Probably Biliong,s To The Sienite Formation) Was Discovered By Barrel. In The Island From Which It Derives Its Name. Its Composition Is Very Ext ; It Has A Basis Of Gray Granite, Which, However. In Most Parts Exhibits A Con Siderable Portion Of Hornh'ende. ...

Gratle Graces
Graces, Gratle, Or Charities, In The Heathen Mythology, Were Fabulous Deities, And Represented As Three Young And Handsome Sisters, Attendant On Venus. Their Names Are Aglaia Or /egle, Thalia, And Euphrosyne; E. Shining, Flourishing, And Guy. They Were Supposed By Some To Be The Daughters Of Jupiter And Eurynome, The ...

Greenhouses
Greenhouses, As Nosy Built, Serve Not Only As Conser Vatories, But Likewise As Ornaments Of Gardens; Being Usually Large And Beautiful Structures. Sometimes In The Form Of Galleries, Wherein The Plants Are Handsomely Ranged In Cases. See Conservatory. The Greenhouse Is A Sort Of Building Designed For The Purpose Of ...

Groin
Groin, Sometimes Spelt Groyne, A Kind Of Jetty Built Across The Beach At Right Angles To The Line Of The Shore From High To Low-water Mark. Groins Are Used Particularly On The Southern And South-western Coast Of England, To Retain The Shingle Already Aeeumulated, To Recover It When Lost, Or ...

Groin
Groin, In Architecture, The Hollow Formed By The Inter Section Of Two Or More Simple Vaults, Crossing Each Other At The Same Height. In The Geometrical Point Of View, The Centre Of A Groin Is Formed By The Entire Meeting Of The Surfaces Of Two Or More Eylindrits; That Is, ...

Groin Ceiling
Groin Ceiling, A Cradling Constructed Of Ribs, Lathed And Plastered. It Differs In Its Construction From Groin Centering, As The Former Requires Angle-ribs. There Are Two Different Methods Of Constructing Groin-ceilings; One By Ribs Fixed Vertically And Perpendicularly To The Sides Of Each Branch; The Other By Angle-ribs And Ceiling-joists, ...

Grotesque
Grotesque, That Beautiful Light Style Of Ornament Used By The Ancient Romans, In The Decoration Of Their Palaces, Laths, And Villas. It Is Also To Be Seen In Some Of Their Am Phitheatres, Temples, And Tombs, The Greatest Part Of Which Being Vaulted, And Covered With Ruins, Have Been Dug ...

Grotto
Grotto (from The French, Grotte) Is Used For A Little Artificial Edifice Made In A Garden, In Imitation Of A Natural Grotto. The Outsides Of These Grottos Are Usually Adorned With Rustic Architecture, And Their Inside With Shell-work, Fossils, &c. Finished Likewise With Jets D'eau, Or Fountains, &e. A Cement ...

Gutter
Gutter, In Building, A Channel For Collecting And Con Veying The Water Froin The Roof, Situated Between The Parapet And The Inclined Side Of The Covering, Or Between The Inclined Sides Of A Double Roof, The Intersection Of The Vertical Plane Of The Wall And The Inclined Plane Of The ...

Gymnasium
Gymnasium, A Place Fitted For Performing Exercises Of The Body. The Word Is Yvavaatov, Formed Of Yvprog, Naked; Because They Anciently Put Off Their Clothes, To Practise With The More Freedom. Among The Ancients, The Gymnasium Was A Public Edifice Destined For Exercise, And Where People Were Taught, And Regularly ...

Gypsum
Gypsum, A Substance Formed By The Combination Of Sulphuric Acid With Calcareous Earth. Gypsum Is Found In A Compact And Crystallized State, As Alabaster And Selenite, Or In The Form Of A Soft Chalky Stone Which In A Very Moderate Heat Gives Out Its Water Of Crystalli Zation, And Becomes ...

Half Timbered Houses
Half-timbered Houses, Such As Were In Use During The Reign Of Elizabeth, And The Period Immediately Preceding. They Consisted Of Wooden Framing, Filled In With Plaster, And Had A Very Picturesque Appearance. Hall, (saxon) A Word Anciently Used For A Mansion House Or Habitation. Hall, (french, Salle) In Architecture, A ...

Hard Bodies
Hard Bodies, Such Bodies As Are Absolutely Inflexible To Any Shock Or Collision Whatever. This Is The Common Meaning Of The Term ; But Huygens, By Hard Bodies (corpora Dura) Meant What Others Call Per Fectly Elastic Bodies: For He Thus Expresses Himself: " Qme Cunque Sit Causa, Corporibus Duris, ...

Hinging
Hinging, A Branch Of Joinery, Which Shows The Art Of Hanging A Board To The Side Of An Aperture, So As To Permit Or Exclude Entrance At Pleasure. The Board Which Performs This Oflice Is Called A Closure. The Placing Of Hinges Depends Entirely On The Form Of The Joint, ...

Hip 1100f
Hip-1100f, A Roof Whose Ends Rise Immediately From The Wall-plate, With The Same Inclination To The Horizon As The Other Two Sides Of The Roof Have. The Hacking Of A Hip Is The Angle Made On Its Upper Edge, To Range With The Two Sides Or Planes Of The Roof' ...