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glass, cutting, square, bars, lead, putty and squares

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GLAZING, the business of the glazier, consisting in fitting glass in sashes, frames, and easements, and fixing it either in putty or lead.

It may be classed under the denominations following :— Suslt-work, lead-work, and fret-work.

The tools necessary for sash-work are, a diamond, a ranging-lath, a short-lath, a square. a rule, a glazing-knife, a cutting chisel, a beading hammer, duster, and sash-tool ; and in addition, for stopping-in squares, a hacking knife and hammer. The diamond is a speck of that precious stone, polished to a cutting point, and set in brass in au iron socket, to receive a wooden handle, which is so set as to be held in the hand in the cutting direction ; the top of the handle goes between the root of the fitre-fulger and middle-finger, and the under part, between the point of' the fore-finger and thumb ; there is, in general, a notch in the side of the socket, which should be held next the lath. See DtAmosu.

Some diamonds have more cuts than one.

Plough diamonds have a square nut on the end of the socket next the glass, which on running the nut square on the side of the lath, keeps it in the cutting direction. Glass benders have these plough diamonds without long handles, as, in cutting their curious produetions, they cannot apply a lath, but direct them by the point of their middle linger gliding along the edge of the glass. The ranging lath must be long enough to extend rather beyond the boundary of the table of glass. of glass, is the cutting it in breadths, as the work may require, and is best done by one uninter rupted cut from one end to the other. A short lath is applied to stripping the square to suit, the rebate of a sash ; as in ranging, they are generally cut full. A square is used in cutting the squares from the range, that they may be more certainly cut at right angles. The carpenter's chisel is used in paring away sonic of the rebate of the sash, when the glass does lie so flat as to allow a proper breadth for front putty. The glazing knife is used fur laying-in the putty in the rebates, for bedding-in the glass, and for finishing the front putty. A Itraddin,t!-hannuer is made with a head in

the form of a small parallelopiped, with a socket for the handle, rising at an obtuse angle from the middle of one of its sides : the square edges of the head drive the brads in a horizontal position, and is less liable to accident than if per timaned by another tool : some use the basil of the chisel.

Brass points are esteemed the best ; small cut brads are also used. All new work should be bradded, to prevent the glass being moved out of its bed.

The duster is used in brushing up the front pulleys, and taking the oil from the glass. The sash.tool is used in taking off the oil from the inside, after time back pulleys are cleaned off and is generally used wet. The hacking-knife is tier cleaning out the old putty from rebates, where squares are to be stopped in. The use of the rule needs no explanation.

N.B.—Glaziers' rules are two feet long, in four different pieces. Lead-work is used in inferior offices, and is in general practice throughout the eountty.

Frames are made to receive these lights, with bars across, to which the lights are fastened by leaden bars : those bars are called saddle bars, and where openings are wanted. a easement is introduced, either of wood or iron. Sometimes a sliding frame answers the same purpose. Church windows are in general made in this manner, in quarries or in squares. The tools which this work, in addition to the former. require, are these : a vice, with different cheeks ; and cutters. to turn out the different kinds of lead, as the magnitude of the w in dow or the squares may require.

In common there is broad and narrow lead. The German vices are esteemed the best, and turn out a variety of lead in difThrent sizes.

There are moulds belonging to these vices, in which bars Of lead arc cast; in which form the mill receives them, and turns them out with two sides parallel to each other. and about three-eighths of' an inch broad, with a partition connecting the two sides together. about an eighth of an .inch wide, forming, on each side, a groove nearly bye of an inch, and about six feet long.

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