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grain, granaries, corn, heaps, produce, quantity and public

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GRANARY, a building contrived for laying up and sto ring in order to preserve it for a length of time.

The construction of this class of buildings has not, we believe, received that attention which the importance of it deserves, and we coni:ider therefore that some account of the proper mode of designing and erecting granaries on scientific principles will be both interesting and useful.

It must be evident to all, that, owing to the uncertainty of harvests, the produce of a year may be either abundance or dearth, the frequent recurrence of the latter, in the ear lier ages, obliged most of the ancient nations to seek means of preserving the superabundant produce of plentiful years, in order to be prepared against the privations of less fortu nate ones. This was more imperative, when the means of conveyance by land and water were less perfect than at present. In modern times a higher state of civili zation has taught mankind to feel the advantages of a free circulation of produce, famine is not now therefbre so fearful an evil as formerly. The improvements in the mode of cul ture have also much increased the produce of the earth; but the probabilities of famine, though decreased, still remain to a certain extent, and the construction of proper reposi tories for storing up grain must be always important, as a means of lessening its evils.

In sonic countries public granaries are established upon a very large scale, and in them is preserved the grain col lected from the whole of the surrounding districts. The French have given great attention to the subject, and the following plan for a public granary, by an eminent French engineer, is well north imitation. M. Bruyere observes, that in the calculations necessary to fix the dimensions of a granary destined to contain a determinate quantity of grain, the following considerations must be attended to.

A granary of reserve, as it is termed in France, contains wheat of different ages, and the duration of their preserva tion is three years, the grain being supplied by thirds every year. The disposition to ferment being caused by the degree of moisture. and by the quantity, and the oldest corn being

the dryest, it follows that the mean depth of the heap should vary with the age of the corn. From these data, and by the help of experience, the depths of the heaps of corn may be fixed as follows :— A distance of about a yard should be left between the foot of the heaps and the wall, and an empty space of thirteen to sixteen feet between the heaps, for the operation of turn ing. To these spaces must be added also those occupied by the staircases, rollers, trap-doors, working-rowns, &c., and the whole must be deducted from the superficial content of each fluor. The remainder, multiplied by the number of stages, and the mean height of the heaps, will give the solid content of wheat that the granary can contain.

The situation of a public granary is important ; if possible it should be placed near a canal or navigable river, in order to receive or send out the grain by water, or by any other easy method of transport, as the expense is thereby touch diminished.

For the same reason, granaries should be near a sufficient quantity of mills, whose motive power can, in certain cases, be applied to the different machines used. in the manipulation of the corn. These mills should not, however, be placed in the same building with the granaries, or be too near to them on account of the danger of fire, and because the two ope rations are hurtful to each other ; the dust of the wheat injuring the flour, and the motion of the water rendering the grain too moist.

The aspect of granaries should be south, as the change of temperature will then be sufficient to keep a current of air between the opposite openings, and it is most important to use the driest winds for and drying the grain.

In order to diminish the extent of granaries, it is necessary to add to their height, by multiplying the number of floors; and, as it is easy to raise the grain by the help of machines, we thus gain the advantage of being able to make it descend from sieve to sieve, which cleans and sorts them in the least expensive manner.

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