ORDER, the perfect arrangement and composition of any architectural work ; but the term is Inure especially used to designate the various methods of arrangement employed in Grecian or Classical architecture, and is definitely applied to such a portion of a building as in:1y comprehend the whole design by a continuity and repetition of its pmts. By those who put faith in Vitruvius, the Grecian orders are supposed to be but an imitation of the parts of a primitive hut, and which, according to his theory, originally consisted of a roof or covering, supported by posts made of the trunks of trees, in four rows, forming a quadrangular enclosure. Beams were laid upon the tops of the pots, in order to connect them, in their longitudinal direction, in one body. To support the covering, timbers were laid from beam to beam across the breadth ; and to throw off the wet, other beams were laid parallel to those upon the posts, but jutting farther over on each side of the edifice and these again supported inclined timbers, which overhung their supports, and formed a ridge in middle of the roof, for throwing off the wet ; and thus the part supported formed three principal distinct portions, %%Ilia, in process of dine, were decorated with cer tain nluu1diug-:, or other ornaments, each part still preserving its distinct mass, though perhaps not exactly similar to the original firm. The three parts, taken as a whole, were called the entablature : the lower part, consisting of the linteling beams, e as called the epistyle, or architrave: the middle part, whieh receded from the le, was called the zoophorus, or frieze ; and the tipper part, which projected considerably over the frieze, being in imitation of the ends of the roof, was called the cornice.
Therefore the entablature consists of a cornice, frieze, and architrave.
The posts received the name of columns, which always consist of two principal divisions at least, and frequently of three. 'The columns were ornamented at the top in imitation of the stones laid upon the posts in the original wooden hut, for throwing off the rain. These decorations at the top received the name of capital, and each of the wooden posts that of siert?.
\Vhen ornaments were added to the foot of the shaft, they were termed the base.
The order, therefore, consists principelly of a column and entablature. The column is subdivided into a shaft and capi tal, or, at most, into three principal parts, a base, shaft, and capital ; and the entablature, as has been observed, into archi trave, frieze, and cornice. These parts are again divided into smaller portions. termed mouldings, or other ornaments. See ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF.
ORDER, the pilaster of an attic. See Arne.