Home >> Encyclopedia-of-architecture-1852 >> Onument Of Lysicrates to Or Urbino 1trbin

Encyclopedia of Architecture by Peter Nicholson (1852)

Onument Of Lysicrates
Onument Of Lysicrates. The Choragic Monument Of Lysicrates, Commonly Called The Lantern Of Demosthenes, Is The Most Beautiful Edifice Of Antiquity Of Its Size. This Monument, Which Is Exquisitely Wrought. Stands Near The Eastern End Of The Acropolis. It Is Composed Of Three Distinct Parts. First. A Quadrangular Basement ; ...

Optics
Optics, (from The Latin, Optica) Is Properly The Science Of Direct Vision. In A Larger Sense, The Word Is Used For The Science Of Vision, Or Visibles In General ; In Which Sense, Optics Includes Catoptrics And Dioptrics, And Even Per Spective. In Its More Extensive Acceptation. Optics Is A ...

Order
Order, The Perfect Arrangement And Composition Of Any Architectural Work ; But The Term Is Inure Especially Used To Designate The Various Methods Of Arrangement Employed In Grecian Or Classical Architecture, And Is Definitely Applied To Such A Portion Of A Building As In:1y Comprehend The Whole Design By A ...

Osque
Osque, (from The Arabic, Jtaschiad, Or Aredsched, And Intermediately The Spanish And Portuguese Jfezquita And Masqueta,) A Mohammedan Place Of Worship. The Distinctive Marks Of Which Are Generally Cupolas And Minarets. Inter Nally They Exhibit Nothing Remarkable As To Plan Or Mudation, Forming Merely A Large Hall Or Apartment, Without ...

Pa Lace
Pa Lace. (from The Latin Palutium), A Word Implying, In Its Stricter Sense, A Royal Abode, But Occasionally Applied To The Residences Of Other Persons; The Accompanying Epithet The Quality Of The Inhabitants, As Imperial Palace, Ducal Palace., &e. In Italy The Term Palazzo, Taken By Itself, Is Used For ...

Painting
Painting, The Art Of Imitating The Appearances Of Natural Objects, By Means Of Artificial Colours Spread Over A Surface ; The Colouring Substances Being Used Eioher Dry, As In Crayon Painting ; Or Compounded With Some Fluid Vehicle, As Oil, Water, Or Solutions Of Different Gums And Resins In Oil ...

Palm
Palm. A Measure Of Length Among The Italians, Hut Vary Iv Value In Ditilerent Localities. The Palm Of Genoa M•a Sures Nine Inch•s, Nbie Lines, That Of Naples Eight Inches Seven Lines, That Of Palermo Eight Im-hes Live Lines, And The Modern Boman Palm Eight Inches Three And A Half ...

Pani
P.ani /1zaia, A Picture Exhibiting A Succession Of Objects Upon A Spherical Or Cylindrical Surthce, The Rays (if Light To Pass From All Points Of External Objects, Through The Surthee, To The Eye In The Centre Of The Sphere, Or Axis Of The Cylinder. This Ingenious Pictorial Contrivance, Was First ...

Pantei Eon
Pantei Eon, (from The Greek ;ray, All, And 19e/or, Gode,) In Architecture. A Temple Or Church, Of A Circular Form, De Dicated To All The Gods, Or To All The Saints. The Pantheon Of Ancient Rome Is Of All These Edifices The Most Celebrated, And That From Which All The ...

Paradox
Paradox (from The Greek •rapa, Against, And Do,,a, Opinion) In Philosophy, A Proposition Seemingly Absurd, Because Contrary To The Received Opinions ; But Yet True In Effect. The Copernican System Is A Paradox To The Common People; Lout The Learned ;ire All Agreed As To Its Truth. Geometricians Have Been ...

Parallelopiped
Parallelopiped, Properties Of The. All Parallelopipeds, Prisms, And Cylinders, &c., Whose Bases And Heights Are Equal, Are Themselves Equal. Every Upright Prism Is Equal To A Rectangular Parallelo Piped Of Equal Base And Altitude. A Diagonal Plane Divides The Parallelopiped Into Two Equal Prisms : A Rectangular Prism, Therefore, Is ...

Parthenon
Parthenon, One Of The Finest Temples Of Ancient Athens, Dedicated To Minerva. It Was Of The Dune Order, Erected By Letinas In The Palmy Days Of Creek Art, The Sculptor Being Phidias. It Is Situated About The Middle Of The •itidal, And Is Built Altogether Of Admirable White Marble ; ...

Parts
Parts. Both— The Tower Has 1;lur Turrets, Without Pinnacles, And Is Oblong In Plan, Which Is Owing To The Narrowness Of The Transept ; The Aisles Are Very Low, And There Is No Triforium In The Nave, But Merely A Plain String-eourse. There Is An Alto-relievo Of Jacob's Ladder At ...

Pascal
Pascal. Illaise, A Celebrated Mathematician And Phi Lusimher, Born At Clermont, In Auvergne, In The Year 1 Ilis Father, Who Was A Man Of Great Consideration In His Pro Vince, Was Also Illustrious As :t General As As An Able Mathemativian. To Promote The Studies Of His Only Son, 1ilaise, ...

Patera
Patera, (from Pa Teo, I Am Open,) Among Antiquaries, A Goblet, Or Vessel, Used By The In Their Sacrifices, In Which They Received The Blood Of Their Victims, Offered Their Consecrated Meats To The Gods, And Made Libations. On Medals, The Patera Is Seen In The Hands Of Several Deities ...

Pbotiiyizum
Pbotiiyizum, (from Rrpoovpov) A Porch At The Outer Door Of A House, Or Portal. Pizotiz.actoi;, (from The Latin Prot•actus, To Draw Out) An Instrument Used In Surveying, By Which The Angles Taken In The Field With A Theodolite, Circumferentor, Or The Like, Are Plotted, Or Laid Down, On Paper. This ...

Pclley
Pclley, Doctrine Of The. 1. If The Equal Weights W And P Hang By The Cord A A Upon The Pulley A, Whose Block, B, Is Fixed To The Beam N 1, They Will Counterpoise Each Other, Just In The Same Manner As If The Cord Were Cut In The ...

Pebspecti V
Pebspecti V E (from The Latin Perspicio, To See,) The Art Of Representing Objects On A Definite Surfitee, So As To Affect The Eye When Seen Fi Um A Certain Position, In The Same Manner As The Object Itself Would, When The Eye Is Fixed On The Point In Iew, ...

Pediment
Pediment, In Architecture, A Kind Of Low Pinnacle, Serving To Crown Porticos, Or Finish A Frontispiece ; And Placed As An Ornament Over Gates, Doors, Windows, Niches, Altars, &c. The Pinnacles Of The Ancient Houses. Vitruvius Observes, Gave Architects The First Idea Of This Noble Part ; Which Still Retains ...

Pendentive Cradling
Pendentive Cradling. The Surface To Be Formed May Be Thus Conceived. Let A Square Be Inscribed Within The Cir Cumference Of The Base Ofa Hemisphere, And Let The Hemithere Be Cut By Four Planes Through The Sides Of The Square, Per Pendicular To The Plane Of The Base ; Dm' ...

Peram Lator
Peram Lator, (from The Latin, Perambulo, To Trax El) An Instrument F11' The Measuring Of Distances, And In Frequent Use Ilr Measuring Distances On Roads, For Settling Disputes Concerning The Charges Of The Drivers Of Hackney Carriages, And Other Purposes. It Consists Principally Of A Heel, Upon Which It Runs, ...

Perpendicular
Perpendicular, (from The Latin Perpendicularis,) In Geometry, A Line Falling Directly On Another Line, So As To Make Equal Angles On Each Side ; Called Also A Normal Line. From The Very Notion Of A Perpendicular, It Follows :— 1. That The Perpendicularity Is Mutual ; I. E., If A ...

Persepolis
Persepolis, A Town Of Persia, Formerly Called Ely Mays, Now Known Only By Its Ruins And Monuments, Which Have Been Described By Many Travellers, From Chardin To Niebuhr And Franklin. They Are Situated At The Hi Ittorn Of A Moun Tain, Fronting The South-west, About 40 Miles To The North ...

Persian Or Persepolitan Architecture
Persian Or Persepolitan Architecture, Is That Style Of Building Employed By The Ancient Persians; It Is Called Persepolitan From Persepolis, The Capital Of Persia, Where Also Are Found The Principal Remains Of This Style. The Persian Architecture Bears Some Resemblance To That Of India And Egypt In General Character, But ...

Philibert De Lorme
Lorme, Philibert De, An Eminent French Architect, Born At Lyons, In The Early Part Of The Sixteenth Century. Lie Went To Italy When He Was But Fourteen Years Of Age, To Study The Art For Which He Seemed To Have A Natural Taste, And There His Assiduity Attracted The Notice ...

Picts House
Picts' House, A Name Given To The Remains Of Some Ancient Buildings Not Uncommon In The Scottish Isles, The Erection Of Which Is Attributed To The Picts. They Are Composed Of Large Stones Uncemented, Built Up In A Conical Form, And Are Of Various Sizes. Some Consist Of Only A ...

Picts Wall
Picts' Wall, In Antiquity, A Remarkable Piece Of Roman Nvork, Begun By The Emperor Adrian. A.d. 121. On The Northern Bounds Of England, To Prevent The Incursions Of The I'icts And Seats. At First It Was Made Only Of Turf, Strengthened With Pali Sadoes, Till The Emperor Severus, Cooling In ...

Picture
Picture (from The Latin Picture), An Imitation, Or Representation By Lines And Colours Of Any Natural Object. Such Representations Are Also Called Paintings, From The Name Of The Art By Which They Are Produced ; Which, Being Capable Of General Application, And Of Great Influence Upon The Mind, Has, At ...

Piers Of A Bridge
Piers Of A Bridge, The Supports Of The Arches Over The Openings, When More Than One, Not Including The Supports At The Extremities, Which Are Called Abutments. See Bridge. M. Belidor Observes, That When The Height Of The Piers Is About Six Feet. And The Arches Are Circular, It Is ...

Pile Driver
Pile-driver, A Machine For Driving Piles Into The Ground, Uf Which There Are Many Kinds; Some Are Worked By A Great Number Of Men, Who Raise A Heavy Weight To A Small Height, And Then Let It Fall Upon The Pile, Till, By Reiterated Blows, They Drive It To The ...

Piles
Piles, Ill Hydraulic Architecture, Are Beams Of Timber, Or Stakes Of Wood, Driven Firmly Into The Ground, For Various Purposes ; As, For Forming A Foundation For Buildings, Piers Of Bridges, &c., Iu Which Cases They Are Driven Quite Down Into The Ground, Or Are Cut Off Level With Its ...

Pillar
Pillar (from The Italian Pil;ere. Or French O•) A Kind Of Irregular Column, Round And Insulate ; But De% I .ting From The Proportions Of A Just Column. Pillars Are Always Either Too Massive Or Too Slender For Regular Architecture. In Effect, Pillars Are Not Restrained To Any Rules ; ...

Pitidias
Pitidias, In Biography, An Athenian, The Most Celebrated Sculptor Of Antiquity. 1iis Distinguishing Character Was Grandeur And Sublimity ; And He Particularly Studied Optical Effect. To This Purpose It Is Related, That Having, In Compe• Tition With Alcamenes, Made A Statue Of Minerva To Be Placed On A Column ; ...

Plan Is
Plan Is Pli Er E,(from Latin. Planes, And Greek, Cloatpa,) A Projection Of The Sphere, And The Several Circles Thereof, On A Plane; As Upon Paper, Or The Like. In This Sense, Maps Of The Heavens And The Earth, In Which Are Exhibited The Meridians, And Other Circles Of The ...

Plane
Plane, (from The Latin, Planus,) A Tool Used By Artificers Who Work In Wood, To Produce Straight, Flat, And Even Sur Faces Upon That Material. Almost All Trades Which Fabricate Articles Of Wood, Employ Planes At Times; But As Joiners Make A Greater Use Of These Tools Than Any Others, ...

Planing Ma1311ine
Planing Ma(1311ine, A Machine Used To Diminish The Great Manual Labour Of Planing The Surthces Of Planks And Boards Of Wood : In Strictness, Those Alone Should Be Termed Planiug Machines, Which Reduce The Surface Of The Wood To A True And Smooth Plane, By Means Of Planes, Or Instruments ...

Plaster Of Paris
Plaster Of Paris, A Fissile Stone, Serving Many Purposes In Building ; And Used Likewise In Sculpture, To Mould And Make Statues, Basso- Relievos, And Other Decorations In Architecture. It Is Dug Out Of Quarries, In Several Parts Of The Neighbour Hood Of Paris; Whence Its Name. The Finest Is ...

Plasterer
Plasterer, A Workman To Whom The Decorative Part Of Architecture Owes A Considerable Portion Of Its Abet, And Whose Art Is Required In Every Department Of Building. In Ordinary Edifices, He Lays The Ceilings, And Covers The Walls With A Smooth Coat, To Render Them Sightly, And Prevent The Obtrusion ...

Plasterers Work
Plasterers' Work. This Is Done By The Yard Square, And The Dimensions Are Taken In Feet And Inches. When A Room Consists Of More Than Four Quoins, The Additional Corners Must Be Allowed At Per Foot Run. In Measuring Ceilings With Ribs, The Superficies Must First Be Taken For The ...

Plastering
Plastering, The Art Of Covering The Walls And Ceilings Of A House, Or Other Edifice, With A Composition, Of Which The Work Is Lime And Hair-mortar, Finished With A Coating Of Finer Materials. It Is Of Various Kinds ; As White Lime And Hair Mortar On Bare Walls ; The ...

Plate Iv
Plate Iv. Fly Are 1.—describe Every Rib With A Trammel, By Taking The Extent Of Each Base, From The Plan Whereon The Ribs Stand, To Its Centre, And The He Ght Of Each Rib To The Height Of The Top Of The Niche; It Will Give The True Sweep Of ...

Plumber
Plumber, (from The French Plombier, Derived From The Latin Phi/nion, Lead), An Artist Who Works In Lead, And To Is Confided The Pump-work, As Well As The Making And Forming Of' Cisterns And Reservoirs, Large Or Small, Water Closets, &e., Liar The Purposes Of Domestic Economy. The Plumber Does Not ...

Pointed Architecture
Pointed Architecture, That Style Of Architecture Which Originated In The Substitution Of The Pointed For The Semicircular Arch, And Which Began To Be Employed In The Early Part Of The Twelfth Century. The Pointed Arch Is Formed By The Intersection Of Two Segments, Which In The Earlier Examples Are Very ...

Polishing
Polishing, The Art Of Gloss Or Lustre To A B Thing ; Particularly A Precious Stone, Marble, Glass, A Mirror, Or The Like. For Grinding And Polishing Steel, The Grindstones Used Are Made To Rev 1 Ve, Either Vertically Or Horizontally, With A Velo City So Great As To Describe ...

Polygon
Polygon (from 70..vrovog, Formed From Tro).vg, Many, And Ywvta, Angle) A Multilateral Figure, Or One Whose Peri Meter Consists Of More Than Tbur Sides And Angles. It' The Sides And Angles Be Equal, The Figure Is Called A Regular Polygon. For Similar Polygons See Similar. Polygons Are Distinguished According To ...

Pompeii
Pompeii, An Ancient City Of Naples, Overwhelmed In The First Century By The Same Disastrous Catastrophe Which Destroyed Herculaneum. It Is Said To Owe Its Name To The Triumphant Pomp In Which Hercules Led His Captives Along The Eoast After His Conquest Of Spain ; It Was Probably Situate On ...

Porci I
Porci I. (from The Latin. Porticos) A Kind Of Vestibule, Supported By Columns, Much Used At The Entrance Of The Ancient Temples, Halls, Churches, And Many Other Buildings. See Atrium. In The Ancient Architecture, A Porch Was A Vestibule, Or A Disposition Of Insulated Columns, Usually Crowned With A Pediment, ...

Or Aqueduct Aqueduct
Aqueduct, Or Aqueduct, (from Latin Aqua, Water, And Deco, To Lead,) A Construction Upon Or Through Uneven Ground, For The Purpose Of Forming A Level Canal For Conduct Ing Water From One Place To Another. Aqueducts Were Formed Either By Erecting One Or Several Rows Of Arcades Across A Valley, ...

Or Ba Nlbec Ba113ec
Ba1.13ec, Or Ba Nlbec, A Famous City Of Syria, Celebrated By The Greeks And Latins Under The Name Of Heliopolis, The City Of The Sun, Or Baal. It Was Surrounded With Walls, Which Were Flanked With Towers At Regular Intervals. The Principal Remains Consist Of The Great Temple, A Smaller ...

Or Breast Summer Bbesscamer
Bbesscamer, Or Breast Summer, In Building, A Lintel-beam In The Exterior Walls, Supported By Wooden Or Iron-posts, Or By Brick Or Stone Pillars, For Sustaining The Superincumbent Part Of The Wall. Bressumm•rs Are Used In The Construction Of Shops, Where It It Necessary To Have The Window As Large As ...

Or Common Rule 1
"rule 1, Or Common Rule.—multiply The Square Of The Quarter-girt, Or Of One-fourth Of The Mean Circumference, By The Length, For The Content. " By The Sliding Rule.—as The Length Upon C : 12 Or 10 Upon D : : Quarter Girt, In 12ths Or 10ths, On D : Content ...

Or Cramp Iron Crampern
Crampern, Or Cramp-iron, An Iron Bent At Each Extremity, Towards The Same Side Of The Middle Part, Used To Fasten Stones Together In A Building. When Stones Are Required To Be Bound Together With Greater Strength Than That Of Mortar, A Chain, Or 'bar Of Iron, With Different Projecting Nobs, ...

Or Earthen Floors Floors
Floors Of Earth, Or Earthen Floors, Are Commonly Made Of Loam, And Sometimes, Especially To Malt On, Of Lime, Brook-sand, And Gun-dust, Or Anvil-dust From The Forge; The Whole Being Well Wrought And Blended Together With Blood. The Siftings Of Limestone Have Also Been Found Exceedingly Useful When Formed Into ...

Or Ellipse Ellipsis
Ellipsis, Or Ellipse, In Geometry, A Conic Section Formed By Coffing A Cone Entirely Through The Curved Surface, Neither Parallel To The Base, Nor Making A Subcon Trary Section ; So That The Ellipsis, Like The Circle, Is A Curve That Returns Into Itself, And Completely Encloses A Space. See ...

Or Flutings Flutes
Flutes, Or Flutings, Prismatic Cavities Depressed Within The Surfiee Of A Piece Of Arehiteeture At Regular Distances, Generally Of A Circular Or Elliptic Section, Meeting Each Other In An Anis; Or [fleeting The Surface In An Arris, And Leaving A !jordon Of The Surf:lee Between Every Two Cavities Of An ...

Or Leaver Levu
Levu:, Or Leaver (from The French Levier, Formed Of The Verb Lever, Derived From The Latin, Levare," To Raise") In Mechanics, An Inflexible Straight Bar, Supported, In A Single Point, On A Fulcrum, Or Prop, And Used For The Raising Of Weights. The Lever Is The First Of Those Called ...

Or Mani Road Railway
Railway, Or Mani-road, Or Dram-rom), Or Waggon Way, A Track Constructed Of Iron, Stone, Timber, Or Other Material, Upon The Surface Of An Inclined Plane, Or Other Situa Tion, For The Purpose Of Diminishing Friction, And Thus Serv Ing For The Easy Conveyance Of Heavy Loads Of Any Kind Of ...

Or Metopa Metope
Metope, Or .metopa, (from Pera, Inter, Between, And (rill, An Aperture), In Architecture, The Square Piece Or Interval Between The Triglyphs, In The Doric Frieze. In The Original Greek The Word Signifies The Distance Between One Aperture, Or Hole, And Another, Or Between One Triglyph And Another ; The Triglyphs ...

Or Mosaic
Mosaic, Or Mosate-wortk, (from Mosaiertm, A Corrup Tion Of Musnieum, As That. Is Of Mnsivam, As It Was Called Among The Izomans: But Sealiger Derives It From The Greek, Usaa, And Imagines The Name Was Given To This Sort Of Work, As Being Very Imagines And Ingenious; And Nebricensis Is ...

Or Naked Flooring Carcase
Carcase, Or Naked Flooring, That Which Supports The Boarding Above, For Walking Upon, And The Ceiling Below, By A Grated Frame Of Timber, Consisting Of Three Tiers Of Beams, Called Joists ; The Middle Tier Being Transverse To The Other Two. The Beams Of The Middle Tier, Called Binding Joists, ...

Or Ntrance Nhisance
Nhisance, Or Nt:rance, (from The French, ,mire, To Hurt) In Law, Is Used Not Only For A Thing Done To The Hurt Or Annoyance Of Another, In His Free Lands Or Tenements, But Also For The Assize. Or Writ Ing For The Smile. Nuisances Are Either Public Or Pritmte: A ...

Or Pace Half Space
Half Space, Or Pace, As It Is Sometimes Called, A Resting Place In A Dot?!.de Parallel-flighted Stair, Where The Higher Riser Of The Lower Flight Is In The Same Vertical Plane With The Lowest Riser Of The Higher Flight. Also Any Raised Platform Such As The Dais At The Upper ...

Or Pagoda Pa God
Pa God, Or Pagoda, A Name Probably Indian, 'e Hich The Portuguese Have Given To All The Temples Of The Indians, And All The Idolaters Of The East. These Pageds, Or Pagodas, Are Mostly Square; They Are Stone Buildings, Which Are Not Very Lofty, And Are Erewned With A Cupola. ...

Or Puzzolana
Puzzolana, Or Pozzolan.\. A Kind Of Substance Formed Of Volcanic Ashes, More Or Less Compacted Together, So Called From Pozznolo. As Also Pelvis Puteolanus, From Puteoli, Situ Ate Near Mount Vesuvius, From Which These Ashes Are Ejected, And In The Vicinity Of Which It Abounds. It Occurs Of Various Colours, ...

Or Urbino 1trbin
1trbin, Or Urbino, A Name Frequently Given To That Must Sublime And Excellent Painter, R.teitael Sanzio, From The Place Of His Birth. He Was The Son Of An Indifferent Painter, Named Sanzio, And Was Horn On Good Friday, 1482. Ile Was Employed By The Popes Julian 11. And Leo X., ...