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oil, colour, white, wood, lead, coat and dry

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PAINTING, the art of imitating the appearances of natural objects, by means of artificial colours spread over a surface ; the colouring substances being used eioher dry, as in crayon painting ; or compounded with some fluid vehicle, as oil, water, or solutions of different gums and resins in oil or spirits, &c.

The theory and practice of this ingenious art are divided by its professors into five 'principal parts; viz., invention, or the potter of conceiving the materials proper to be introduced into a picture ; composition, that of arranging those materials ; design, that of delineating thent; chiuro-scuro, or the arrange ment and management of the lights and shades, and of light and dark colours ; and colouring, whose name sufficiently designates its end.

PAINTING, ECW/0///iCai, that application of artificial colours, compounded either with oils or water, which is employed in preserving or embellishing houses, ships, furniture, &c. &c. The term economical, applies more immediately to the power which oil and varnishes possess, of preventing the action of the atmosphere upon wood, iron, and stucco, by interposing an artificial surface ; but it is here intended to use the term niore generally ; in allusion to the decorative part, as applied to buildings ; as well as to its more essential ones; and as it is employed by the architect, throughout every part of his work, both externally and internally.

hi every branch of painting in oil, as applicable either to churches, theatres, houses, or any other public or private buildings, or edifices, the general process will lie found very similar ; or with such variations. as will easily be suggested by the judicious artist or workman.

The first coatings, or layers, if on wood or iron, ought always to be of ceruse or white lead, the very best that can be obtained; which should have been previously ground very fine in nut or linseed oil, either over a stove with a mullet-, or, as that mode is too tedious for large quantities, it may he passed through a mill. If used on wood, as shutters, doors, or wainscoting made of fir or deal, it is highly requisite to destroy the effects of the knots ; which are generally so com pletely saturated with turpentine, as to render it. perhaps, one of the most difficult processes in the business to conquer. The best mode in common cases, is to pass over the knots with ceruse ground in water ; bound by a size made of parch mem, or some other animal substance. When that is dry,

paint the knots with white lead ground in oil, to which add some powerful siecative, or dryer ; as red lead, or lit barge of lead, about one-fintrth part of the latter. These preluirations should be done carefully, and laid very smoothly with the grain of the wood. When the last coat is dry, which will he in twelve or twenty•lbur hours, then smooth it with or give the work the first coat of paint, pre pared, or diluted with nut or linseed loll. When that is dry, all the nail-holes or (other irregularities on the surface should be carefully stopped with a composition of oil and Spanish white. a whiting commonly known by the name of putty : hut which is frequently made and sold in the shops of very infe rior articles. When that is done, let the work be painted over again, with the same mixture of white lead loud oil, somewhat diluted with the essence of oil of turpentine, which process should be repeated not less than three or limo. times, if the work is intended to be left, when finished, of a plain white or some colour ; if of the latter, the last coat should have a small quantity of ivory or lamp-black added to reduce its whiteness a little; and this is also of service in preserving the colour from changing : a circumstance which the oil is apt to produce. But if the work is to be finished of any other colour, either gray, green, &e., it will be requisite to provide for such colony, after the third operation, particularly if it is to be finished fiat, or as the painters sty le it, dead white, gray, fawn, &e. In order to finish the work flatted or dead, (which is a mode much to be preferred for all superior works; not only for its appearance, hut also flit- preserving the colour and purity of the tint) after the work, supposing it to be wood, has been painted four times in oil-colour, as directed in general cases, one coat of the flatted colour, or colour mixed up with a considerable quantity of turpentine, will be found sufficient ; although in large surfaces it will frequently be requisite to give two coats of the flatting colour to make it quite complete. Indeed, on stucco it will be almost a general rule ; but as that will be hereafter treated on, we shall at present say no more concerning it.

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