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Palm

feet, city, appear, ruins, temple, lines, pillars, marble and palmyra

PALM. a measure of length among the Italians, hut vary iv value in ditilerent localities. The palm of Genoa m•a sures nine inch•s, nbie lines, that of Naples eight inches seven lines, that of Palermo eight im-hes live lines, and the modern Boman palm eight inches three and a half lines.

1 l.1, Ruius if, or PALMYRENE NrINS, the ruins of a city of this name. situate in a desert of ria, in the pachalie of I honascus. about IS leagnes from Aleppo, and as far from 1 famasens. This city. under the name of Tadmor. appears to have been originally built by Sidowon (I Kings, ix. IS. 21 Iron. viii. ilosephus assures us, that this was the same city which the Greeks and Bomans arterwa•ds called Palmyra; and it is still called 'radmor by the Arabs of the conntry, Rut many circumstances besides the It of the 1)161(141.s, render it p obahle that the present mitts are not those built by Si d( WI] MIL neither history nor trad.tiota mention the building any h relli'et to the ruins, they appear to be of two dis tinct periods; the oldest are so far decayed as not to admit of oueiusluration, :Loa seem to kit, been rt.duct,1 to that state by the hand of tittle; the others appear to have been broken into fragments by jUlenee. or the inscriptions. none are earlier than the birth of Christ. nor are ant later than the des truetion of the city by Aurelian, except one, with Mentions Dioelesian. It is scarcely less difficult to account for the situation or this city than flit' its magnificence; the most probab e conjeetni e is. t hut as as the springs "1 Palmyra were discovered by those eln. first traversed the desert ill 1t is situated. a settlement was made there for the of carr\ ing on the trade to India, and preserving an intercourse between the Mediterranean the lied Sea. This trade, which flourished long betbee the (Thristjan ;era, accounts not only fir its situation, lint also for its wealth. As it lay het ween Egypt, :Ind Greece, it was to expect, that traces of the manners and sciences of those nations should be discovered the h'almyrenes; who accordingly appear to have imitated the Egyptians in their funeral rites, the Persians in their luxury. and the (1reeks in their bnildings ; and therelitre the eI lch now lie in I tins, were probabl\ neither the works of Solomon, nor of the Sc encidie. nor. few eXt•epted, by the 1:01nan emperors, but of the Palmyrenes themselves.

Palmy' a was formerly encompassed fig_ trees, and covered an area ac•oriling to the Arabs, of near ten miles in circumference ; and might probably have been reduced to its present confined and ruined state by iptantities of sand, driven over it by whirlwinds. The walls of the city are flanked with square towers ; and it is probable, from their general direction, that they inebuled the great temple, and are three Milos in cirumferenve. Rut,

if all the monuments of art and in this city, the most considerable is the temple of the sun. The whole space voloaining its is a still:We of yards, encore. passed with a stately wall. and adorned with pilasters within and without, to the nullifier of sixty-two on a side. Within the court are the remains of two rows of very noble marble pillars, 37 feet high ; the temple was encompassed with another row of pillars 50 feet high ; but the temple itself was only arils in lenurli, and 1:1 or 14 in breadth. This is now convened into a mosrple, rind ornamented after the Turkish manner. North of this place is an obelisk, consist ing of set en large shines, besides its capital and the wreathed work about it, about 50 feet high, and, just above the pedes tal. P..). mutt eireuinferenee. Upon this there was, probably, a statue, which the Turks have destroyed. At a small dis Unice there, are two others, rind a fragIn•lit of a which gives reason coneludiffr that they were once a continued row. There is also a piazza -10 feet broad, half a mile in length, enclosed with rows of marble pil lars, feet high. and S or 9 feet in compass ; and the num ber of these, it is computed, could not have been less than 560. this piazza appear the ruins of a stately building, supposed to have been a banqueting house, elegantly with the best sort of marble. hi the West side of the piazza there are several apertures for gates into the court of the palace, each adorned with four porlihyry pillars, 30 feet long and 9 in circumference. There are several other marble Pillars diGrently arranged, on the pedestals of which there appear to have been inscriptions both in the Greek and Pal My rene languages, which are now altogether illegible. Among these ruins there are also many sepulchres, which are square towers, fold• or five stories high, and varying in size and splendour. We are indebted for an account of these very magnificent reinains of antiquity, partly to some Eng lish merchants \rho visited them in 1075 and 1691, (Phil. Trans. No. :217, 21S, or Losythorp's vol. iii.) but ehiefft to .Mr. Bouverie and 'Air. Dawkins, accompanied by Air. It. Wood, who travelled thither in 1751. The result of their observat nu was published in 1753, in the form of an Atlas, containing 57 copper-plates, admirably executed. :Since this publication, it is universally acknowledged that antiquity. has left nothing, either in Greece or Italy, to be compared with the magnilicence of the ruins of Palmyra.

P E, a wreath 011111.11-1A Of the leaves and fruit of the vine, employed to decorate the driest grooves Of t\liSted