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original, objects, line, picture, eye and called

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P.ANI /1ZAIA, a picture exhibiting a succession of objects upon a spherical or cylindrical surthce, the rays (if light to pass from all points of external objects, through the surthee, to the eye in the centre of the sphere, or axis of the cylinder.

This ingenious pictorial contrivance, was first devised by an English artist, Robert Barker, about the year 1794 ; and isnot so much a new mo e of painting—the process itself similar to scene-painting, or in distemper—as a novel appli cat on of it. Contrary to the diorama l_honAmA], the panorama Iirms the surface of a hollow et limier, or rotunda (whence it is frequently called, in Ramlyeinab(e. ur Rumlbeltl, eyelorairm), in the centre of which is a ffilached tareular platform for the spectators, cot end Dyer to conceal the skt Ight, and thereby increase the illusion. and give greater effect to the painting itsef. This latter is not painted on the walls, but upon canvass, like the scenes of a theatre, and afterwards fixed tip, in order that the views may.

be changed. and a fresh one may he in progress while another is open lhr exhibition. Yet, although there is nothing what ever particular in regard to the execration or process of such pictures, they arc attended with difficulties which can be mastered only by practice and experience.

The 4)1 these arises from the cireurnstance, that the artist cannot either concentrate his light, or adapt the diree tion of it arbitrarily. as hest suits his purl ; but while portions of his view will be entirely in the opposite will be almost a mass of shadow ; the second is the difficulty of representing, ou a curved surtree, the straight horizontal lines of buildings: the third and greatest of all is, that there can be no single fixed point of sight. since the eye traverses around the whole circle of the horizon. Hence it may be supposed, that many parts of such a picture would appear, if not quite distorted. more or less out of perspective. Yet such is not the ease, no doubt partly because the eye accommodates itself to certain lixvd upon by the artist as centres r if vision, and on account of the optir.al

fitscination attending the whole. The subjects generally chosen are views of cities, or interesting sites. whose entire locality and buildings may thus be vividly placed before the eye in a manner no less instructive than it is interesting.

PANolzA;Niie PRojEcTiox is the method of forming a pano rama from the geometrical consideration of the properties of In the following, principles of the panorama, the surffiee on which objects are supposed to be represented is that of a cylinder; though a sphere may be considered still !mire per fect, as it: surface is everywhere equally distant trout the eye; but a cylindric sip Ilice is more convenient fiir the pur pose Of delineation; and if' the objects are not very distant from the intersection of a plane passing through the eye perpendicular to the axis, the distortion will not be per the following definitions: 1. The et limbic surface on which objects are to be represented. is called, also, the panoramic surface ; and the picture formed is called a paaarainic ricur, or Panoramic picture.

• The point of sight the place where the organ of vision is placed, in order to receive the impression of the images of the objects on the panoramic picture.

? Au original ohjed is any object in nature, or an object which may be supposed to exist, in a position and dis tance, as a point, line, or solid.

4. original plane is the plane on which original objects are supposed to be placed.

5. The point where an indefinite original line cuts the picture, is called the intersection of that original line.

O. The line on the picture where an original plane meets or intersects it, is called the interscetion of shut original plane.

7. A line drawn through the point of sight parallel to an original line, is called the parallel of that original line.

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