Home >> Encyclopedia-of-architecture-1852 >> Onument Of Lysicrates to Or Urbino 1trbin >> Parts

Parts

nave, choir, aisles, tower, feet, cathedrals, central, west, height and england

PARTS.

Both— The tower has 1;lur turrets, without pinnacles, and is oblong in plan, which is owing to the narrowness of the transept ; the aisles are very low, and there is no triforium in the nave, but merely a plain string-eourse. There is an alto-relievo of Jacob's ladder at the west end.

L'risto/— has no external flying buttresses, the walls of the nave being supported by the roofs of the aisles•which are formed of complieated open arches; the aisles and nave are of equal height, only tiu•y-three feet.

Canterbury — ThL, crypt, which is of greater extent, and more lofty than any other in England ; the central tower and the apsidal limn of the east end.

Chester —The unequal dimensions of the north and south transepts, the latter being wider. and nearly as long as the nave, with aisles on each side, while the thriller is unusually short, and of the same width as the central tower ; the aisles of the choir also extend beyond it east ward, and limn the aisles of the Ladye chapel.

Chichester— I las the earliest. specimen tit' a vaulted roof; its spire greatly resembles that of Salisbury.

hur/n/o/ — Pillars of nave curiously striated ; the Galilee nieasui.es 50 feet by 7 feet.

Exeter —Possesses almost the only example of a group in sculpture, which is in the triforia of the transept, and represents a concert 91 musical instruments.

Ely —The octangular lantern, which is 71 feet in diameter, and 1•2 feet from the ground, supplied the place of a central tower which fell down a short time previlms to the erection of the lantern. There exists one of the earliest specimens of the pointed arch in the tower and transept.

Gloucester —The eastern termination is apsidal ; and the cloisters, the most perfect and beautiful in England, un usually situate on the north side of the church.

Lincoln—Old west front; the large and beautiful south porch, and cast flicade ; the Galilee. The central tower had a shire higher than Salisbury, which was blown down A. v. 1547. This church is remarkable for its sculpture, and has a curious bas-relief of the Deluge over the west door, and of the Last Judgment over the south porch.

Lichfield— ls nearly uniform, and was completed through out on the original plan. Tho east end is apsidal in plan.

Xorwich— The cud of the choir is octangular, and the clois ters arc very spacious.

grand facade and portico, remarkable for their lam proportions; the Galilee and aspidal termination, also the west transept, which is placed at the west end.

_Rochester — The west facade is one of the most perfect speci mens of Norman ; the choir is longer than the nave.

Salisbury —ls the unifbrin cathedral in England, and has a lofty and beautiful spire, only seven inches thick. Wells —91e \vest front is noted as bearing a resemblance to the facades of Continental cathedrals; it is filled with statues ; the central tower is supported on an inverted arch as at Salisbury.

Winchester — is remarkable for its fine nave ; the choir is under the central tower.

Worcester — The style and proportions of the nave are con sidered beautiful.

York —The aisles surrounding the whole church are of the same dimensions throughout ; the rose window, which is 22 feet 11 inches in diameter, is the finest in England ; the choir is under the tower, as at Winchester.

The subjoined Tables may be found useful ; the former, from the works of 1)allawav, gives the dates of the principal por tions of the English Cathedrals; the latter, compiled princi pally from I lrittl in's Antiquities, shows their dimensions. It will be noticed that N r. Dallaway's dates do not agree in every ease wit 11 those given.

;Niany cathedrals of architecture similar to our own, are to I /V seen oil the Continent, of the more in it ed of hick we shall give a short description. One of the great points of distinction between the English and foreign cathedrals, is the superior magnitude of the latter, Is hich is evidenced more in the height than in any other dimension :—a ciremn stance which will he apparent, when it is told that the west front of York :Alinster could be placed beneath the choir roofs of Reanvais or Amiens cathedrals ; the length of the continental buildings, however, does not bear su great a proportion to their breadth as in England, so that they lose that perspective effect ailiniled by the lung vista of arcades which forms so beautiful a feature in our cathedrals. An..ther distinguishing characteristic in the foreign churches. is afforded in the magnificence. of the grand of which full one moiety is occupied by the portal. In our works the entrance is of small dimensions, and is subservient to the window above it, but in theirs it forms the principal object, being splayed from the door to the exterior surface of the wall, and the space thus limited, occupied with columns, ni•hes, statues, owl other eintiellishtnents; the upper part t his splay is Qfcour. e of an arched form, and the tympanum over the door-head is frequently tilled with large groups of sculpture. The upper half of the fac'ade is occupied by a circular or rose window Qt' great magnitude. This arrange ment is frequcutly carried out in the ends of the transeiits. Further we have to notice the apsidal firms of the cast end, the numerous chapels surrounding the choir, and the great height of the roof, which in France is in a great measure •tinvealed by lofty parapets, but in where it is even more lofty. is left. exposed. the tbreign structures are remarkable for the great height of the body and aisles, and simplicity of the vaultinfi ; for the apsidal termination with y:tiltcd roof, and the size of the rose windows of the nave and transepts. The body of the build ing is frequently divided laterally into live parts, having a central nave with a double aisle on each side of it.

The following eathedrals are remarkable for their Eteit'aiire Pm•ehes—Rlii inns, Straslanzr, and lIonen.

Ruse w;vdmes—Strasburo, Notre Dame, S. Ouen, Rouen, and spires—Stra,lawg. Meeldin, Antwerp, PH, Friburg, Louvain. and Vienna. The height of that of Strasburg is 550 feet ; that of Louvain (now fidlen) 5:;:i fret; and that of Vienna, 4115 feet. Stras Friburg, and Constance, are noted for their spires of 'Work or pierced The cathedrals of Freidlairgb and have the nave and aisles of the sane an,l that of Frei(' burgh has the side aisles nearly as wide as t he St. Lorenzo, Nuremburgh, has a choir loftier than the nave. and the cathedral at Worms is celebrated for its two choirs.

S. Peter's, lb tine, is the most spacious cathedral. after which follow those of ( 'ologne an I of which the has been completed ; it was commenced in the middle the thirteenth century, but the choir is the only portion that was tinish,A, the nave is earried up only half its height. This building. it' entire. would be perhaps the most tringniticent cathedral in existence, lint there scents but a remote probability Of its it is said to be adorned with •1.97:1 pinnacles, iiitt statues, t'.2's windows. 1 tto flying liuttresses, 104 pillars, and 9 entrances. while boasts of 4,100 and IGO columns of white marble.