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Qua Izry

stone, materials, quarries, nature, sort, material, met and rag

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QUA IZRY, (front the Irish, carrig, a stone mine, or place where stones are digged. The methods which are practised in searching for, and ascertaining the presenve of different sorts of materials of this nature, are principally those of boring, by means of an auger or borer made for the purpose, into the earth, and digging into it in other ways. In searching for most sorts of mineral substances, coals, and sonic other matters, the use of the borer is con stantly first had recourse to, and not that of sinking a shaft, however fltvourable the appearances of the place may be for the purpose, and the success of the undertaking. The ground is first tried by this means, and•a certainty of success or fitilure gained, as well as that of the most proper situation for sinking the shaft, or making the opening, or pit, without lunch expense being incurred, in case of the former. In trying for ochres, marls, and other similar articles, the same implement is also in common use. But in raising and providing lime-stone, free-stone, flags, and slates, &c., in some cases, down into, and opening the ground, by spades and other tools, is the mode employed in the first instance, in consequence of such substances being obviously present in sufficient quantities to be wrought with advantage.

Lime-•one is a very general sort of stone, raised from quarries and pits, in many different parts of this country, as in Devonshire, Sussex, Kent, &e., towards the south, where it lies in vast beds, from which it is dug for use ; in the more midland counties, as in Gloucestershire, Shropshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and others, where it exists, and is employed to a still greater extent ; but by far the most extensively in those further to the north, as Lancashire, Westmoreland, Yorkshire, Cumberland, and some districts of Scotland. In many parts of the county of Lancaster, it is dug and raised from quarries, where it lies in a stratified manner at no great depth from the surface, being got up without much difficulty or trouble ; while, in other places, it is forced from the solid rock with great labour and expense. This is likewise the case in many other districts. Wherever it is met with it is almost constantly a quarry material of great value, and affords much employment to labourers.

in the county of Kent, the banks of some of the large rivers are scooped out into stone quarries in a remarkable manlier, some of them worn out and disused, others in the state of being wrought. It has been observed, that this is the nearest

stone into which wate•-carriage can penetrate from the metropolis ; and that the original London was built, as well as the modern one chiefly paved, by materials from this district, such as the rag stone, and the large pebbles gathered on the sea-shores, before the Scottish granite came into use. In the neighbourhood of Alaidstonc, there are appearances of many abandoned and neglected quarries of this nature; but the most considerable, which were lately wrought in that vicinity, are those of Farleigh and Pant. In each of these, blocks of stones, of different kinds, and of every form and size, are met with,- being separated by seams, and large irre gular masses of earth of various qualities : among the rest, brick earth of the best quality. In some places, the stones are buried several feet under these earthy materials : in others, the rock rises to the surface. After this, the quarry men worm their way ; following it with irregular windings, leaving behind them refuse in greater quantity than the use ful materials which they raise.

The stony surfaces which are principally met with in them are of two very distinct kinds: the one hard and of a strung contexture, provincially denominated rag or Kentish rag ; the other of a soft, crumbly nature, provincially termed hassock. The quarrymen are in the practice of dividing the first sort into two kinds ; what they call the common-rag and the cork-stone, the latter being their principal object in these immense works. It has, in its general appearance, much resemblance to the strong gray limestones which are found in different parts of this country ; but when minutely examined by means of a glass, its fracture and contexture have the characters of the Devonshire marbles : except that the grain of this sort of stone is somewhat coarser. In colour, too, it differs from those marbles, having a greater resemblance to the Yorkshire limestones. It is used for different purposes ; much of it is sent to the neighbourhood of London, where it is burnt into lime for the use of the sugar-bakers ; who for some reason or other chiefly employ lime burnt from this material, or stone, instead of that from chalk. It is likewise made use of as a building material ; and particularly in pedestals, for the posts of cattle-sheds, and other farm•offices. It is hewn with stone-masons' axes, working with tolerable freedom.

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