Home >> Encyclopedia-of-architecture-1852 >> Portic1 to Sir Christopher Wren

Encyclopedia of Architecture by Peter Nicholson (1852)

Portic1
Portic1, A Small Town Of Italy, About Six Miles From Naples, On The Sea-shore, At The Foot Of Vesuvius. Its Prin Cipal Ornament Is A Royal Palace. Under This Town And Palace Lies Buried, At The Depth Of 70 Feet Under Accumulated Beds Of Lava, The City Of Herculaneum, The ...

Porticos
Porticos Were Numerous Buildings In Rome For The Con Venience Of The Public In Sultry Or Inclement Weather ; Dis Tinguished From Those Which Formed The Vestibules, Or Which Decorated The Entrance Of Temples. Some Of The Principal Were The Porticus Duplex, So Called From Its Double Row Of Pillars, ...

Prison
Prison, An Edifice Erected For The Confinement Of Debtors And Criminals, Until They Be Discharged Or Convicted. The Principal Properties In The Construction Of A Prison, Are Those Of Strength And Convenience. Strength Is Of The Utmost Consequence, In Order To Prevent The Escape Of The Prisoners ; And Convenience, ...

Proposmon
Proposmon X.—to Discover The Effect Of Bracing The Angles Of A Roof Flat On The Top, Supported By Puncheons At The Bottom Of The Rafters, To Accommodate A Semicircular Ceiling Within. Figure 2. No. 1.—let Abcdef Be The Truss Divested Of Its Braces, The Bottoms Of The Puncheons Resting Firmly ...

Pulley
Pulley, (from The French, Pouge) One Of The Five Mechanical Powers; Consisting Of A Wheel, Or Rundle, Having A Channel Around H, And Turning On An Axis. Serving, By Means Of A Rope Which Slides In Its Channel, For The Raising Of Weights. The Latins Call It Trochlea ; And ...

Pyramid
Pyramid, (from The Greek, Trvpaptc—de•ived From 7vq, Fire) A Solid Standing On A Square, Triangular, Or Polygonal Basis, And Terminating At Top In A Point ; Or A Body Whose I Base Is A Regular Rectilinear Figure, And Whose Sides Are Plain Triangles ; Their Several Verticals Meeting Together In ...

Q I E P
E P Q, Q I, Are To One Another As The Numbers 1,3, 5, 7, And E 0, E P, E Q, E I, Are As The Square Numbers 1, 4, 8, 16, But The Lines O D, P C, Q B, Are To One Another As 1, 2, 3, ...

Q Q R
Q R, Q R Will Be The Vanishing-line Of The Plane Of Shade, And Let It Cut V L', The Vanishing-line Of The Horizon, In R ; And L' U, The Vanishing-line Of The Vertical Planes, Br C L And D E /%1 N, Of The Walls, In R ; ...

Qua Izry
Qua Izry, (front The Irish, Carrig, A Stone Mine, Or Place Where Stones Are Digged. The Methods Which Are Practised In Searching For, And Ascertaining The Presenve Of Different Sorts Of Materials Of This Nature, Are Principally Those Of Boring, By Means Of An Auger Or Borer Made For The ...

Quarrying Slates And Stones
Quarrying Slates And Stones, The Methods Of Preparing Them For Their Different Uses And Applications At The Quarries And Pits Where They Have Been Raised. The Former Of These Articles, Particularly Those Of The Blue, Green, And Purple Or Blackish Kinds, Undergo Several Different Sorts Of Preparation In The Quarrying, ...

Quick Lime
Quick-lime, Such Lime As Is In The Caustic Or Most Active State, And Which Possesses The Greatest Power Of Opera Ting Upon Digrent Substances With Which It May Conic In Contact. It Is Quite The Opposite, In Its Qualities And Proper Ties, To That Which Has Fallen Down Into A ...

Rani
" ;rani Re Is One Of The Most Abundant Rocks At Or Near The 501 Thee Of The Earth, It Is Likewise Considered As The Foun Dation Rock Of Globe, Or That Upon Which All Secondary Rocks Repose. In Alpine Situatlials It Presents The Appear Ance Of Haying Broken Through ...

Rcfai Volution
Rcfai Volution, (from The Latin, Circumvolutus) The Act Of Rolling Round. In Architecture, This Term Is Applied To The Spirals Of The Ionic Capital ; Every Term Of Which Is Called A Circumvolution. In The Most Ancient Examples Of The Lillie Order, The Volute Has Three Circumvolutions, Or Revo Lutions, ...

Resistance Of The Fibrec
Resistance Of The Fibrec Of Solid Bodies, Theory Of The. To Form An Idea Of This Resistance Or Reniteney Of The Parts, Suppose A Cylindrical Body Suspended Vertically By One End. Here All Its Parts, Being Heavy, Tend Downwards, And Endeavour To Separate The Two Contiguous Planes, Where The Body ...

Roads
Roads, As Regards The History Of Road-making, The First Steps Towards The Construction Of Permanent And Durable Roadways Are Said To Have Been Taken By The Greeks, And Also That This People Expended Considerable Care And Labour In Their Construction. But More Noted Than The Greeks In This Matter, Were ...

Role
Role, Use Of The Carpenter's Joint. The Application Of The Inches In Measuring Lengths, Breadths, &c., Is Obvious. That Of The Gunte•'s Line, See Under Gunter's Lines, In The Article Instruments. The Use Of The Other Side Is All We Need Here Illustrate. . I. The Breadth Of Any Surface, ...

Roman Architecture
Roman Architecture. The Early Romans Can Scarcely Be Said To Have Possessed Any Style Of Architecture Of Their Own, But Borrowed Their Ideas Ot' Building First Flout . The Etruscans, And, At A Later Period, Front The Greeks. In The Time Of Romulus, Their Buildings Would Seem To Have Been ...

Roman Orden
Roman Orden, An Ordinance Of Architecture, Invented By The Romans From The Ionic And Corinthian Orders ; And Hence, It Has Also Obtained The Name Of The Composite Order. See Order. Vitruvius, The Most Ancient Writer On Architecture, After Describing The Three Grecian Orders, Mentions Several Fanciful Compositions, Without Giving ...

Rood Loft
Rood Loft, An Elevated Loft Or Gallery Occupying A Position To The Rood-beam, But Resting Or Appearing To Rest On A Screen Below. It Was Usually Spread Out Front The Top Of The Screen On Both Sides Of It, So As To Give A Landing At Top Of Sufficient Space ...

Round Church
Round Church, This Appellation Is Given To A Few Churches Which Exist Of A Peculiar Construction, Being Erected On A Plan Either Simply Circular, Or Circular With A Rectangu Lar Projection : The Circular Portion In Both Cases Being That Which Forms Its Peculiarity. There Are Only Four Such Struc ...

Round Towers
Round Towers. This Term Is Applied To A Particular Class Of Towers Built Upon A Circular Plan, Which Are Found In Considerable Numbers In Ireland, And Almost Exclusively In That Country. They Are Evidently Of Great Antiquity, And Have Long Been A Subject Of Antiquarian Dispute. Mr. Petrie Has, Within ...

Rule
Rule, Is Generally Used In Taking Dimen Sions, And In Casting Up The Contents Of Timber And Artificers' Work. It Consists Of Two Equal Pieces Of Box, Each One Foot In Length, Connected Together By A Folding Joint : In One Of These Equal Pieces There Is A Slider, And ...

Rule_2
Rule, Carpenter's Joint, An Instrument, Usually Of Box, 24 Inehes Long, And 14 Broad, Each Inch Being Subdivided Into Eight Parts ; On The Same Side With These Divisions Is Usually Added Gunter's Line Of Numbers. On The Other Side Are Lines Of Timber And Board-measure, The First Beginning At ...

Saint Peters
Saint Peter's, A Celebrated Church, At Rome, Better Known By The Name Of Basilica Vaticana, From Its Original Form, And The Vatican Hill, On Which It Stands, Founded By Constantine The Great, Over The Reputed Grave Of St. Peter, To Whom It Was Also Dedicated. In The Days Of Paganism, ...

Sasit Frame
Sasit-frame, The Wooden Frame In Which The Sashes Are Fitted For The Convenience Of Sliding Up Or Down, Or Sideways, As The Nature Of The Apartment To Be Lighted May Require. . When One Or Both Sashes Are To Be Moved Vertically, They Are Commonly Equipoised By Weights ; And ...

Saxon Architecture
Saxon Architecture, That Style Which Was Prac Tised By The Anglo-saxons During Their Ascendancy In This Country; A Style Which Is Exhibited Solely In Churches, And Other Ecclesiastical Structures, And Prevailed From The Time Of The Conversion Of The Saxons, To The Norman Conquest. When The Saxons First Obtained Possession ...

Screw
Screw, (from The Dutch, Scroeve,) One Of The Six Mecha Nical Powers; Chiefly Used In Pressing Or Squeezing Bodies Close, Though Sometimes Also In Raising Weights. The Screw Is A Spiral Thread, Or Grove, Cut Round A Cylin Der, And Everywhere Making The Same Angel With The Length Of It. ...

Seasoning Timber
Seasoning Timber, The Act Of Preparing It For Building, By Expelling The Natural Sap. Added To The Other Defects Of Modern English Building, Particularly That Of The Metropolis And Its Immediate Neigh Bourhood, Is The Improper State In Which Timber Is Used. The Major Part Of Our Best Timber Is ...

Sewerage
Sewerage, The Method Of Removing Superfluous Water, Rain, Filth, Night-soil, And Other Refuse Matters From A Town Or Other Locality. The Subject Connected With This Article, Is Of Very Con Siderable Importance, As It Affects The Health, Morals, And Social Well-being Of The Community ; As It Is Now Universally ...

Shadowing
Shadowing, In Drawing, The Art Of Representing The Various Degrees Of Light And Shade By Means Of A Dark Fluid, Or Liquid. The Paper Intended To Be Drawn Upon, Having Its Rough Edges Cut Off, Ought To Be Wetted, Or Uniformly Moistened, And Pasted Round Its Four Edges Upon A ...

Shaft
Shaft, (from The Saxon Seeaft,) That Part Of A Column Which, In The Classic Examples, May Be Denominated The Fits Tram Of A Conoid, Situate Between The Base And Capital; It Is Also Called The Fast, Trunk, Or Body Of The Column. By Some Architects, Columns Are Diminished From One-third ...

Sii William Ci I
Ci I Am I3ers, Sii: William, A Distinguished Architect, Is Said To Have Derived His Descent From The Ancient Tinnily Of Chalmers, In Scotland, Barons Of Tartas, In France. Ile Was Born, However, At Stockholm, In Sweden, \\ Here His Father Had Resided For Many Years, In Order To Prosecute ...

Sir Christopher Wren
Wren, Sir Christopher, The Only Son Of Dr. Christopher Wren, Dean Of Windsor, Was Born At East Knoyle, In Wiltshire, On The 20th Of October, 163'2. Ills Mother Was Mary, Daughter And Heiress Of Mr. Robert Cox, Of Foothill, In The Same County. His First Education In Classic Learning Was ...