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Rani

granite, purposes, rocks and rock

" ;RANI rE is one of the most abundant rocks at or near the 501 thee of the earth, it is likewise considered as the foun dation rock of globe, or that upon which all secondary rocks repose. In alpine situatlials it presents the appear ance of haying broken through the more superficial strata of the earth ; the bed,: of other rocks in the vicinity rising towards it, at increasing angles of elevation as they approach it. It forms some or the most lofts of the iminntain-•hains of the eastern continent ; and the central parts of the principal mountain-ranges of Scandinavia, the Alps, t he Pyrenees, and the Carpath'an mountains, are of this rock. No 1)17:1Hk; t11iSi remains have ever been found in granite, although it is some times found overlying strata containing such remains." (Lopertot Dtetionary.) of ail materials tun is the most durable, as shown by many 01• the imeient 1•;(ryptian monuments. By the Egyptians and other very ancient nations it was more particularly applied. together with sienite, for the purposes of arehitecCclle and statuary, told many very interesting monu ments of their skill and patience are still existing in the col lections It alltiqintleS. As instances of the extreme dura bility of granite, we may mention, that the obelisk in the place of Saint do Laterdn at Home, which was q tarried at Syene, under the reign of "Leto., king of Thebes, I:I00 years the Christian era ; and the one in the place of Saint Pierre, also al 1Zotne, consecrated to the sun by a son of S,•so.tris, have resisted the weather ca. fail 3000 years.

use of granite for architectural and economioal purposes is perhaps nowhere more amply displayed than at St. Peters not only the imperial :I.1111 other palaces hut ecru Ordinary have dick lower parts lined with SI.lbs of gra•nte. The left hank of the great Neva, fro a the )''null fry to the Gulf of Cronstadt, and both kinks of the Fontatn:a and of the Cath trine canal. are lined by Nigh walls constrneted of such slabs of ; as are many bridges over the Neva. balustrades, &e. The pillars, stairs, balconies, &c. in thc palace orCronstailt. are :111111)st I if the tinest kinds of granite. Those employed ror ornamental architecture are cut and polished by lapidaries ; but those intended for less delicate purposes, such as eonimon slabs, steps, cylinders, trou.dis. &e. are worked by peasants, particu lar{l by t hose of Olonesk. The `grove intnent-towns, however, Moscow not excepted, are too distant from the chief granite mountains, to be enabled to make frequent use of that rock for the above purposes.

Mr. Brand has divided the dill'orent granites used in the arts after their predominant colours ; the following are the principal varieties, in which, Iniwever, the black-and-white kind is not included, one of its ingredients being hornblende, which assigns it a place among the sienitcs.