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paper, edges, dry, ought, panel, tint and water

SHADOWING, in drawing, the art of representing the various degrees of light and shade by means of a dark fluid, or liquid.

The paper intended to be drawn upon, having its rough edges cut off, ought to be wetted, or uniformly moistened, and pasted round its four edges upon a board, observing, in doing this, that no part of the paper ought to be suffered to dry before the edges that are pasted, as the paper will begin to shrink; and, consequently, by its motion towards the cen tre, will loosen the edges : as soon, therefore, as the middle part appears dry before the edges, it ought to be moistened again with a sponge, and the sponging should be repeated as often as may be found necessary ; and, when the paper be comes dry, it will be perfectly flat, and fit for use.

In order to lessen this trouble, some have drawing.boards framed so as to include a panel, which is let into a rebate, on the inner edge of the frame, and fastened, by means of bars, upon the back of the board.

The paper being wetted on the side intended to be drawn upon, the dry side is laid upon the face of the panel, now out of the frame, so that the edges of the paper project alike on all sides, over the edges of the panel; then laying hold of the paper by the edges out of the panel, place it over the aperture in the frame, with the underside reversed, and press it in; after which, bolt the panel to the frame by means of the bars, and the edges of the paper being inserted in the seam, or joint, between the edges of the panel and the adja cent edges of the frame, will prevent the paper, as it con tracts in drying, from returning towards the centre, and, when dry, it will be flat and extended; but this method can only be practised in small drawings. The former must, therefore, be considered as the general plan of fixing the paper.

The fluid commonly used in architectural drawings is Indian ink dissolved or mixed in water. The method of doing it is this: fill a small cup with as much water as may be necessary for the quantity of ink intended to be made; then rub the ink upon the tip of the fore-finger, wetted in water, and wash it 011' in the cup : when the water becomes sufficiently dark, it will be fit for use. This method is, how

ever, too tedious fin- general use, the more frequent practice is to rub it up as other colours. The stick of ink should be rubbed quite dry, otherwise it will be apt to fall into pieces, and become unfit fur use. The liquid thus made is called ink or colour.

The next thing to be done is to outline the drawing.

Straight lines are drawn with a steel pen, circles by the compass, and curve lines by hand, with camel or sable hair pencils, or with a fine-pointed pen, or with curved ruler and drawing pen.

In drawing very fine lines, the inking-points of the steel pen and compasses ought to be kept very sharp, but not so much as to cut the paper. The outlines being finished, the paper ought to be rubbed clean, and then sponged, or rub bed with a soft brush and water, in order to soften the lines, and to make the paper receive the shadowing more freely. It' the paper be even sponged, or brushed, so as to raise the nap in a small degree, it will be the more favourable for pro ducing clear and soft shadows.

In laying the shadowing colour upon the paper, it ought to be spread over the surface uniformly with a camel or sable hair pencil, flowing freely ; but not in such quantities as to stand in hollows upon the paper, as, when dry, it be comes cloudy. in making a uniform tint, the first thine to be considered is, the degree of darkness to which the sur Ince is intended to be made. If required to be very light, one tint, or the shade once gone over, will be sufficient ; but, if dark, several tints will be necessary. In producing the several degrees of darkness, every tint ought to be nearly dry before the next is laid; the number of repetitious will depend upon the depth of the colour and extension of the surface to be shadowed. It may be observed, that the light est tint, often repeated, will darken the surface to any degree required. But that too much time may not be dedicated to laying a fine tint, it must also be observed, that the greater the facility with which the tints are laid, the fewer will be required to darken the surface. This facility is to be ob tained by sufficient practice.