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Encyclopedia of Architecture by Peter Nicholson (1852)

Skew
Skew Bainoes May Fairly Come Under The Head Of Stone Ii ; For Though They Are Frequently Built Of Brick And Other Materials, The Vast Majority Of Such Constructions Are Either Formed Of Stone, Or Stone And Brick Combined. Oblique, Or Skew Bridges, Have Been Introduced Contem Poraneously With Railways ...

Slating
Slating, Is Employed, In Architecture, In Sundry Ways, The Principal Of Which Refers To The Covering Of The Roofs Of Buildings, But Such Has Been Lately The Perfection Of Working Ill Slate, That It Is Now Wrought And Fitted Into Many Useful Utensils, As Well As Made Up Into Balconies, ...

Soffits
Soffits, The Under Sides Of The Heads Of Apertures, Or The Parts Of Mouldings Which May Be Projected Upon A Hori Zontal Plane, By Lines Perpendicular From All Points Of The Mouldings Upon That Plane. Several Methods Have Already Been Described, Under The Article Envelope. What Is Proposed Under The ...

Solid Angle
Solid Angle, An Angle Formed By Three Or More Plane Angles In A Point. The Sum Of All The Plane Angles Constituting A Solid Angle, Is Always Less Than 300°; Otherwise They Would Constitute The Plane Of A Circle, And Not A Solid. If The Apex Of A Solid Angle ...

Specific Gravity
Specific Gravity, A Comparison Of Every Solid, Or Fluid, With The Weight Of The Same Magnitude Of Rain-water. Rain-water Is Chosen As The Standard Of Comparison, On Account Of Its Being Less Subject To Variation In Different Circumstances Of Time, Place, &c., Than Any Other Body, Whether Solid Or Fluid. ...

Specification Of Works
Specification' Of Works. Mason's Ifork.—" Specification Of The Mason's Work Of The Abutments For The Iron Bridge Intended To Be Erected Over The River Trent, At A Place Commonly Called 1 High Bridge, Near To Handsac•e In The County Of Stafford :— " The Footings To Be In 3 Courses, ...

Spire
Spire, A Pyramidal Acutely-pointed Covering Or Roof, Most Usually Found On Towers Of Churches And On Turrets. Spires Are Constructed Either Of Stone Or Of Wood, Covered With Lead, Slate, Or Oak Shingles. They Were Probably Not Introduced Into England Till Some Time After The Norman Conquest. In The Earliest ...

Stained Glass
Stained Glass, Pieces Of Glass Stained Of Various Colours, And Arranged So As To Form A Variety Of Patterns Or Devices, And Sometimes Of Pictorial Representations. The Ancient Egyptians Are Said To Have Made And Coloured Small Ornaments Of Glass, But Glass Does Not Seem To Have Been Much Used ...

Staircase
Staircase, A Term Applied To The Whole Set Of Stairs, With The Walls Supporting The Steps, Leading From One Story To Another. The Same Staircase Frequently Conducts To The Top Of The Building, And Thus Consists Of As Many Stories As The Building Itself. When The Height Of The Story ...

Stairs
Stairs, (from The Saxon, Stager,) In A Building, The Steps Whereby To Ascend And Descend From One Story To Another. The Breadth Of The Steps Of Stairs In General Use In Com Mon Dwelling-houses, Is From 9 To 12 Inches, Or About 10 Inches At The Medium. In The Best ...

Ste Eutomy
Ste Eutomy, (from Cepeoc, Solid, And Relent, Section,) The Science And Art Of Cutting Solids Tinder Certain Specified Conditions. Stereotomy May Be Regarded As A Branch Of Stereography, Which Is The Science Of Solids In General. Mr. Hamilton Has Intitled His Complete Body Of Perspective, Stereography, Which Perhaps Would Have ...

Steel
Steel, (from The Saxon Stal,) Is Made Of The Purest Malleable Iron By An Operation Called Cementation, By Which It Acquires A Small Addition To Its Weight, Amounting To About The Hundred And Fiftieth, Or Two Hundredth Part. In This State It Is Much More Brittle And Fusible Than Before. ...

Stereography
Stereography, (from Tepee's., Solid, And Ypask.), To Describe,) That Branch Of Solid Geometry Which Demonstrates The Properties, And Shows The Construction, Of All Solids Which Are Regularly Defined. It Explains The Methods For Construct Ing The Surfitces In Plains, So As To Form The Entire Body, Or To Cover The ...

Stone Bridge
Stone Bridge. In A Former Article, (13nince) General Historical View Has Been Taken, Of The Rise, Progress, And Present State, Of Bridge-building, Exemplified In Descrip Tions Of The Most Celebrated Edifices Of The Kind, In Various Parts Of The World. Under The Present Head, The Theory Of The Art Will ...

Stone Stairs
Stone Stairs, Those Constructed Of Stone. When Stone Stairs Are Supported By A Wall At Both Ends, Nothing Difficult Can Occur In The Construction ; In These The Inner Ends Of The Steps May Either Terminate In A Solid Newel, Or Be Tailed Into A Wall Surrounding An Open Newel. ...

Stone Walls
Stone Walls, Such Walls As Are Constructed Of Stone. The Modern Methods Of Constructing Stone Walls, With A Description Of The Materials Employed, Have Already Been Given Under The Head Masonry; We Shall, Therefore, Confine This Article To The Construction Of Walls Used By The Ancient Greeks And Romans. Vitruvius ...

Suspension
Suspension Bainne. It Is. However, Given Here. As It Describes A Mode Of Constructing Centres Applicable As Well To Stone As To Iron Arches:— " The Duty Assigned Me," Says Mr. Telford, " Being To Consider, And Report Respecting A Bridge Across The Menai, I Shall Confine Myself To This ...

Suspension Bridge
Suspension Bridge. This Kind Of Construction Is, Perhaps, The Simplest And Most Easily Erected Of All Bridges ; We Find Examples Of It Spoken Of In Remote Times, And There Are Few Countries In The World Where It May Not Be Seen Under Some Form Or Other. In England We ...

Table Of Comparative Time
Table Of Comparative Time Of Run Of Water Through Brick Drains And Glazed Pipes. The Rate Of Inclination Is A Matter Which Requires Some Consideration In Laying Out A System Of Drainage ; The Greater The Fall, Of Course The Greater The Velocity, And, In Conse Quence, The More Rapid ...

Technical References To The
Technical References To The Plates. " Plate Plan And Perspective Elevation If The Eddystone Rock, As Seen Front The West ; Showing Also The Theodolite. " The Representation Is As I Found The Rock ; Figure 1 Being The Plan, And Figure 2 The Upright View. 'rile Settle Letters Refer ...

Temple
Temple, (from The Latin Templum,) A Building Erected In Honour Of Some Deity, Whereat The People Met For Religious Worship. Clemens Alexandrinus And Eusebius Refer The Origin Of Temples To The Sepulchres For The Dead: Herodotus And Strabo Will Have The Egyptians To Have Been The First Who Raised Temples ...

The Tioval Exchange
The Tioval Exchange, In General, Has Been Fortunate In Finding Historians, Still The Current Descriptions Are. For The Most Part, Imperfect And Incorrect, And Utterly Without The -sanction Of Official Authority. Like Even Thing In The City, The Existence Of The Royal Exchange Is Owing To Individual Enterprise. This Is ...

Theatre
Theatre, (from 19eacroat, To See,) A Building Used For The Performance Of Plays, And Other Scenic Representations. [the Statement Alluded To By Mr. Wyatt, Is As Follows : Parma, 40 Feet ; Turin, 39; Bordeaux, 39; Argenta, At Rome, 36 ; Milan, 40 ; San Benedetto, At Venice, 40 ; ...

Theorem X11 1zule 5
Theorem X11. 1zule 5, Is A Very Near Approximation To The Quadrature Of The Segment Of A Circle. It Is Much Ea.ier Than Any Other Rule Yet Shown For The Same Purpose. It Was Invented, And First Published In The Article Mensuration, Of The Principles Of Architecture, By Nicholson ; ...

Timber
Timber, Wood Felled And Seasoned For The Purpose Of Building. Alany Kinds Of Woods Are Useful For Building Pur Poses, But Those Most Frequently Employed Are Oak, Fir, And Pine ; But Before Entering Into The Peculiar Properties Of These, It Will Be As Well To Give Some Idea Of ...

Toni B
Toni B. The Custom Of Interring The Dead Seems To He More Ancient Than That Of Burning, And In Many Countries We Find That Great Pains Were Taken To Preserve Them By Em Balming And Similar Methods. The Practice Of Burning The Bodies Would Seem To Be Of Later Date, ...

Tools
Tools, (from The Saxon Tot,) Implements Used By Artifi Cers In The Reduction Of Any Material To Its Intended Form. The Tools Employed By The Different Professions Of Artifi Cers In Building Are Chiefly Carpenters' Tools, Bricklayers' Tools, Joiners' Tools, Masons' Tools, Slaters' Tools, And Tilers' Tools. The Bricklayers' Tools ...

Tower
Tower, A Building Of Great Height In Proportion To Its Horizontal Dimensions, Usually Forming An Adjunct To A Larger Building, And Employed As A Belfry, Stronghold, Watch, Or Beaccaf. Amongst The Romans, Structures Of This Kind Do Not Seem To Have Been Very Numerous; And When Employed, They Were Not ...

Tracery
Tracery. That Kind Of Pattern Traced In The Head Of A Gothic Window Or Panel By The Divergence And Intersec Tion Of The Mullions. The Origin Of This Kind Of Work Is To He Observed In The Works Of The Close Of The 12th Century, From Which Period It Was ...

Triumphal Arch
Arch, Triumphal; An Edifice Erected By The Romans In Various Situations, But More Especially At The Entrances Of Their Cities, In Honour Of Victorious Generals, And In Later Times Of The Emperors. These Structures Were Originally Built Of Brick, But Afterwards Of Stone, Or Marble ; Their Form Was That ...

Truss
Truss, (from The French Trousse,) A Frame Of Timbers So Disposed, That If Suspended At Two Given Points, And Charged With One Or More Weights In Certain Others, No Timber Would Press Transversely Upon Another, Except By Timbers Exerting Equal And Opposite Forces. When One Or More Exterior Timbers Of ...

Tudor Architecture
Tudor Architecture, Considered In A General Sense, Is That Style Of Architecture Which Prevailed During The Tudor Dynasty. It Is Necessary, However, That The Applica Tion Of The Term Should Be Somewhat Limited ; For It Cannot Be Expedient To Adopt One Title For So Many And Widely-dif Ferent Styles ...

Tuscan
Tuscan An Ordinance With A Column And Entablature The Same As The Roman Doric. Divested Of Its Trigl? Alts, Inntules, And Giatte. The Members Of The Entablature Being Continued ,throughout The Whole Length, Without Inter Ruption. It Has Been Customary To Consider This Method As A Sepa Rate Order ; ...

Us L
Us L = L And Therefore A A; = This Last Equation Will Easily Give Us The Depth Of The Vaulting, Or Thickness, D, Of The Arch, When The Curve Is Given. For Its Fluxion Is Dy Ip T' T X And D T X± A T X Which Is ...