BA1.13EC, or BA NLBEC, a famous city of Syria, celebrated by the Greeks and Latins under the name of Heliopolis, the city of the sun, or Baal. It was surrounded with walls, which were flanked with towers at regular intervals. The principal remains consist of the great temple, a smaller one, called by Mr. Wood the most entire temple, a circular temple of a singular construction, and a Doric column stand ing alone. The longitudinal direction of the great and most entire temples is east and west. Before the entry to the great temple are two courts and a portico, which face east wards. After passing the portico, we come to an hexagonal court, surrounded with columns and apartments; we thence enter a quadrangular eourt, the area of which is also sur rounded with columns: on the north or south side of' this court are seven apartments, or exhedric; live are rectangular on the plan, one stands in the middle, having a semicircular exhedra on each side of it. These were probably lodging rooms for the priests. At the other extremity of this court, upon the south, are columns of a colossal magnitude, being the remains of the peristyle of the temple. The shafts are
twenty-one feet eight inches in circumference; and the entire height of the columns fiftv-eight feet.
The columns are all joined with iron cramps, and without cement, which is nowhere used in these edifices, but the surtiwes are so close that there is hardly room for the blade of a knife to be inserted between them. The stones which compose the sloping wall are of enormous size. On the west the second course is of stones from twenty-eight to thirty tive feet long. and nine feet in height : and at the north angle, over this course, are three stones, which occupy one hundred and seventy-five feet seven inches. The shafts of the columns of the great temple consist each of three pieces which are joined with iron pins about one foot long, and one diameter. Most of the bases had two sockets, one cir cular. and the other square. Greek and Roman authors are entirely silent as to these astonishing ruins.—(Ruins of Bal . !, by Wood and Dawkins.)