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Masonry Structures by Frederick Putman Spalding (1921)

1 E 4374 100x
E= =4374 _ 100x 18x Isx27 =_137,1 Pounds Per Foot Of Length Of Wall. The Bending Moment Caused By This Thrust Upon The Section At The Top Of The Base Is .1/=4371x6x12=:31•192s In.-lb. From Table Vii, For = 650 And L= 16,000, We Find R=108 And P= .0078. Then Rbd" ...

7111s00x425x 2 150x425x
711=1s00x4.25x 2 +150x4.25x 2 — X 3 If The Steel Be Placed 1.75 Inches Below The Top Surface The Thick Ness At C Is 13 Inches, A = Pbd = .007s X 11.2x 12 =1.05 In.' From Table Xv, We Find That (-inch Bars Spaced 5 Inches Apart, The Same ...

Asiilar Stone Bridge A
Bridge A D Retaining Wall Masonry, Asiilar Stone Bridge And Retaining Wall Masonry, Ashlar Stone.-20. The Stone Shall Be Large And Well Proportioned. Courses Shall Not Be Less Than 14 Inches Or More Than 3c Inches Thick, Thickness Of Courses To Diminish Regularly From Bottom To Top. Dressing.-21. Beds And ...

Axial Compression
Axial Compression For Concentric Compression On A Plain Concrete Pier, The Length Of Which Does Not Exceed 4 Diameters, Or On A Column Reinforced With Longitudinal Bars Only, The Length Of Which Does Not Exceed 12 Diameters, 22.5 Per Cent Of The Compressive Strength May Be Allowed. Allowable Stresses For ...

Beams Reinforced For Compression
Beams Reinforced For Compression Flexure Formulas.—it Is Frequently Necessary To Place Steel In The Compression As Well As The Tension Side Of A Beam. When The Size Of A Rectangular Beam Is Limited, So That The Concrete Area Is Insufficient To Carry The Stress, Steel May Be Used To Take ...

Box And Open Caissons
Box And Open Caissons Box Caissons.—a Caisson Is A Watertight Casing Within Which The Work Of Placing A Foundation May Be Clone. The Casing Forms A Shell Which Contains And Usually Remains A Permanent Part Of The Foundation. Caissons Are Of Three General Types: Those Closed At Bottom, Known As ...

Brick Masonry
Brick Masonry Joints In Brickwork.—in The Construction Of Brick Masonry, It Is Necessary That The Joints Between The Bricks Be Filled With Mor Tar, The Purpose Of Which Is To Give A Firm And Even Bearing To The Bricks, So That The Pressure Upon Them Will Be Uniformly Distributed. The ...

Brick And Block Masonry
Brick And Block Masonry 56. Clay And Shale Bricks.—the Cheapness, Case Of Construction, And Durable Qualities Of Good Brick Masonry Make It One Of The Most Desirable Materials For General Structural Work. It Is Not As Largely Used In Engineering Work As Stone Or Concrete, But In Building Con Struction ...

Bridge Piers And Abutments
Bridge Piers And Abutments Locations And Dimensions For Piers.—in Fixing The Locations For Piers Of A Bridge, There Are A Number Of Factors Which It May Be Necessary- To Take Into Consideration. In A Navigable Stream, They Trust Be Arranged So As To Obstruct The Channel As Little As Possible ...

Building Stone
Building Stone Qualities For Building Choice Of Stone For Use In Important Structures Is Always A Matter Of Moment, And Frequently Involves Considerable Difficulty, On Account Of The Wide Variation In The Characteristics Of The Stones Commonly Used. Stones Belong Ing To The Same Classes Frequently Differ Greatly In Their ...

Cement Mortar 32
Cement Mortar 32. Proportioning Mortar.—in Specifying The Proportions Of Ingredients For Cement Mortar To Be Used In Construction, It Is Usual To Give The Ratio Of Parts Of Cement To Those Of Sand By Volume The Relative Proportions Of Sand And Cement To Be Used In Any Instance Depend Upon ...

Cementing Materials Lime
Cementing Materials - Lime Classification.—the Cementing Materials Employed In The Construction Of Masonry And Concrete Structures Include Common Lime, Hydraulic Lime, Portland Cement, Natural Cement, And Puzzolan. These Materials Are Formed By The Calcination Of Limestones, Or Of Mixtures Of Limestones With Siliceous Or Argillaceous Materials, And Their Properties Vary ...

Classificatio Of Brick
Classificatio\ Of Brick Bricks Used In Structural Work May He Classified As Follows: Common Bricks Are Those Used For Brickwork, Where Appearance Is Not Of Special Importance. "1'hey Are Burned At Moderate Temperatures. The Best. Well-burned Common Bricks Are Known As Hard Or Cl Rry Bricks, Or Sometimes As Stock ...

Classification Of Plasters
Classification Of' Plasters (a) Produced By The Incomplete Dehydration Of Gypsum, The Calcination Being Carried On At A Temperature Not Exceeding 190° C. (1) Plaster Of Paris, Produced By The Calcination Of A Pure Gypsum, No Foreign Materials Being Added Either During Or After Calcination. (2) Cement Plaster (often Called ...

Cofferdams 197
Cofferdams 197. Types Of Cofferdams.—a Cofferdam Is A Structure Intended To Exclude Water And Soft Materials From An Inclosed Area, In Order To Permit The Water To Be Pumped Out And The Work Of Placing A Foundation To Be Done In The Open Air. This Method Is Applicable Only To ...

Concrete Columns 119
Concrete Columns 119. Plain Concrete Columns.—the Strength Of Plain Concrete In Compression Has Been Discussed In Section 94. The Failure Of A Short Block Under Compression Occurs Through Lateral Expansion And The Shearing Of The Material On Surfaces Making Angles Of About 30° With The Line Of Pressure As Shown ...

Conduits
Conduits Types Of Conduits.—conduits For Carrying Water May He De Signed Either For Gravity Flow Or For Internal Pressure. Brick Masonry Was Formerly Largely Used In The Construction Of Gravity Conduits, Particularly For Larger Sewers, But Is Now Being Replaced For The Most Part By The Use Of Concrete. For ...

Constriiction Of Retaining Walls
Constriiction Of Retaining Walls Stated In Section 126, The Most Common Cause Of Failure Of Retaining Walls Is Defective Foundations. Careful Attention Must Always Be Given To The Sufficiency Of The Foundation, Footings Being Arranged So That Excessive Pressure Does Not Come Upon The Soil Upon Which The Structure Rests. ...

Construction Of Masonry Dams
Construction Of Masonry Dams Foundations.—masonry Dams Are Ordinarily Applicable Only T-0 Situations Where Foundations Of Solid Rock May Be Obtained. Careful Examinations Of The Character Of The Rock Should Always Be Made To Considerable Depths Below The Foundation In Order To Make Sure That No Seams Or Strata Of Porous ...

Cost Of Concrete Work
Cost Of Concrete Work Cost Of Materials.—the Cost Of Cement Varies With The Demand, And For Different Localities, With The Cost Of Transportation. Prices For Cement Delivered Should Always He Obtained In Making Estimates For Work. The Cost Of Wagon Transportation In Delivery Of Cement To The Work Varies With ...

Culverts And Conduits
Culverts And Conduits Types Of Culverts.—the Term Culvert Is Usually Applied To Structures Intended To Provide Small Waterways Through Earth Embankments. Such Structures Are Usually Constructed According To Certain Standard Plans, Depending Upon The Size Of Opening Re Quired. For The Smaller Openings, Pipe Culverts Of Vitrified Clay, Plain Or ...

Dams Curved In Plan
Dams Curved In Plan Curved Gravity Dams.—in Constructing Clams Across Narrow Valleys, It Is Often Desirable To Curve The Clam In Plan, So As To Make It Form A Horizontal Arch, Convex Upstream. When So Arranged, A Portion Of The Water Pressure May Be Transmitted To The Sides Of The ...

Design Of Beam Bridges
Design Of Beam Bridges 152. Slab Bridges.—when The Span Of A Bridge Is Not More Than 12 To 15 Feet, The Simple Slab Spanning The Opening And Resting Upon The Abutments At Its Ends Is Usually The Most Economical Form To Use. Under Heavy Loading, The Economic Limit Of Length ...

Design Of Reinforced Concrete
Design Of Reinforced Concrete Arch Selection Of Dimensions.—in Designing An Arch, It Is Neces Sary To First Assume Dimensions For The Arch Ring, And Then Investigate For The Strength Of The Arch And The Suitability Of The Assumed Dimen Sions To The Conditions Of Service. The Methods Of Investigation Usually ...

Design Of Voussoir Arches
Design Of Voussoir Arches 160. Methods Of Design.—in Designing Masonry Arches, The Form And Dimensions Of The Arch Ring Are First Assumed And The Stability Of The Arch, As Assumed, Is Then Investigated. The Graphical Method Of Investigation Is Commonly Employed, A Line Of Pressure (see Sec Tion 156) Being ...

Development Of Masonry Construction
Development Of Masonry Construction Definition.—the Term Masonry In Its Original Significance Means " A Construction Of Dressed Or Fitted Stones And Mortar." It Is Thus Properly Limited To Stone Masonry. Custom Has, However, Extended The Use Of The Term To Cover Any Construction Composed Of Pieces Of Inorganic Non-metallic Material ...

Durability Of Concrete 90
Durability Of Concrete 90. Destructive Agencies.—well-constructed Concrete, Under The Conditions Usually Met In Ordinary Work, Is Practically An Inde Structible Material, But Under Special Conditions, When Subject To The Action Of Agencies Peculiar To Particular Classes Of Work, Con Crete May Yield Like Any Other Material. The Cracking Of Concrete ...

Early History 3
Early History 3. Ancient Masonry.—the Art Of Masonry Construction Dates From The Earliest Records Of Authentic History. The Most Fruitful Source From Which To Obtain A Knowledge Of The History Of The More Ancient Peoples Is In A Study Of The Remains Of Their Masonry Struc Tures. The Earliest Important ...

Foundation Materials
Foundation Materials Examination Of Soil.—the Stability Of Any Structure Requires That It Be Adequately Supported By The Ground Upon Which It Rests, Hence The Nature Of The Soil Upon Which The Structure Is To Be Placed Is The First Subject For Consideration In Designing A Foundation, And The Local Conditions ...

Gravity Dams 135
Gravity Dams 135. Stability Of Dams.—a Gravity Dam, Like A Retaining Wall, Depends Upon The Weight Of The Mass Of Masonry To Resist The Thrust Of The Water Against It. As The Dam Carries Water Pressure Instead Of Earth Pressure, The Loads To Which The Darn Is Subjected Are Defi ...

Gypsum And Cement Block
Gypsum And Cement Block Concrete Gypsum Wall Blocks.—blocks Made By Mixing Gypsum Plaster (see Section 37) With Wood Fiber Or Similar Materials Are Used For Partition Walls In Fireproof Building Construction. They Are Made 30 Inches Long, 12 Inches High, And From 3 To S Inches Thick, With Tapering Openings ...

Hydraiilic Cement 12
Hydraiilic Cement 12. Setting And Hardening Of Cement Powder Is Mixed With Water To A Plastic Condition And Allowed To Stand, It Gradually Combines Into A Solid Mass, Taking The Water Into Con Bination, And Soon Becomes Firm And Hard. This Process Of Com Bination Among The Particles Of The ...

Loadings For Short Bridges
Loadings For Short Bridges Highway Bridges.—sidewalks Of Bridges In Towns May Be Considered As Carrying A Live Load Of 100 Pounds Per Square Foot Of Sidewalk Area. In The More Crowded Districts Of Cities, Larger Loads Are Sometimes Employed, But In General This Is Ample For All Probable Occurrences. Roadways ...

Loads For Masonry Arches
Loads For Masonry Arches 157. Live Loads For Highway Bridges.—for The Floors Of Open Spandrel Arch Bridges, Live Loads Should Be Considered In The Same Manner As For Slab Bridges (see Art. In Investigations Of Arch Rings, Live Loads Ore Usually Taken As Uniformly Distributed. The Loading Which Should Be ...

Measurement And Cost
Measurement And Cost Methods Of Measurement.—in Engineering Work It Is Usual To Estimate Stone Masonry In Cubic Yards Of Actual Masonry. When Parts Of The Work Are Of Special Character, Requiring Cut-stone Finish, Special Prices Per Cubic Yard May Be Given, Or The Additional Costs Of The Cut Surfaces Are ...

Mixing Concrete 79
Mixing Concrete 79. Preparation Of Materials.—in Making Concrete, The Materials Should Be Properly Prepared And Conveniently Placed For Use, As The Labor Cost Of Concrete Work Is Largely A Matter Of Arrangements For Handling Materials. The Work Should Be Systematized So That It Goes Forward Smoothly, Without Loss Of Time ...

Pile Foundations
Pile Foundations Classification Of Piles.—a Pile Is A Stick Of Timber Or Other Material Driven Longitudinally Into The Soil For The Purpose Of Increas Ing Its Power To Sustain Loads, Or To Resist Lateral Pressures. Piles Are Usually Of Timber, Concrete Or Metal, And Are Further Classified According To The ...

Placing Concrete
Placing Concrete Transporting Concrete.—the Methods Of Handling Concrete From The Mixer To Its Final Location Vary With The Size Of The Work And The Consistency Of The Concrete. For Small Work And Short Distances, Wheelbarrows Are Commonly Used. Ordinary Contractors' Barrows Carry From About 1.s To 2.0 Cubic Feet At ...

Plain Concrete
Plain Concrete Materials Used For Aggregates.—concrete As Used In Con Struction Is Essentially A Mixture Of Cement Mortar With Broken Stone, Gravel, Or Other Coarse Material. The Mortar Serves To Fill The Voids In The Stone And The Whole Is Bound Into A Solid Monolith By The Setting And Hardening ...

Pneumatic Caissons
Pneumatic Caissons The Compressed-air Method.—a Pneumatic Caisson As Ordinarily Employed Consists Essentially Of An Air-tight Box, Or Working Chamber, Open At The Bottom, Which May Be Filled With Compressed Air To Keep Back The Water And Permit The Excavation Of The Soil From Below The Bottom Of The Caisson By ...

Pressure Of Earth Against
Pressure Of Earth Against A Wall. Theories Of Earth Pressure.—the Lateral Pressure Of A Mass Of Earth Against A Retaining Wall Is Affected By So Many Variable Conditions That The Determination Of Its Actual Value In A Particular Instance Is Practically Impossible. Several Theories, Based In Each Case Upon Certain ...