Home >> Masonry-structures-1921 >> 1 E 4374 100x to Pressure Of Earth Against >> Development of Masonry Construction

Development of Masonry Construction

stone, concrete, brick, account, material, employed and structure

DEVELOPMENT OF MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Definition.—The term masonry in its original significance means " a construction of dressed or fitted stones and mortar." It is thus properly limited to stone masonry. Custom has, however, extended the use of the term to cover any construction composed of pieces of inorganic non-metallic material fitted together into a mono lithic block. This includes all structural work in stone, brick, and tile, as well as concrete construction.

The word brick was formerly used to designate a small block of burned clay. Similar blocks of other materials have recently come into use, and we now have several kinds of bricks; as clay brick, sand-lime brick, cement brick, etc. Glazed and other ornamental and surfacing tiles are commonly employed, while hollow tiles of various kinds are rapidly coming into use. All construction formed of bricks or tiles cemented together may be classed as brick masonry.

The term stone masonry is used to designate any work in which stones are fitted and cemented together so as to form a structure. Stone masonry is further subdivided into rubble masonry, squared stone masonry, and ashlar or cut-stone masonry.

Concrete is ordinarily formed by mixing broken stone or gravel ‘vith cement mortar to a mobile condition and placing it in forms in the position in which it is to be used. It is then left to harden and forms a monolithic block.

Ordinary concrete cannot be economically employed where tensile stresses are developed in the structure on account of the low tensile resistance of the concrete. It is therefore common, when it is desired to use concrete in such situations, to embed steel rods in the con Crete to take the tensile stresses, leaving the concrete to carry com pression only. This construction is known as reinforced concrete.

2. Uses of Masonry.—Masonry in some form is now used in nearly all kinds of engineering and architectural construction. The selection of the type of masonry to be used in any particular structure is ordinarily largely a matter of cost, the latter factor depending upon the suitability of the construction to the use to which it is to be put, and the availability and costs of the necessary materials and labor. These factors are subject to local variation and need to be considered in each instance.

Brick masonry is largely used in the construction of buildings, being usually cheaper than stone, and when of good quality showing both strength and durability. Very pleasing architectural effects

are readily obtained by proper selection and arrangement of materials in brickwork. Brick masonry is frequently used in the construction of large sewers and in the arch ring of small arched bridges, and is readily adapted to such uses, but is gradually giving way to concrete.

Hollow-tile construction is being quite commonly applied in building operations, and is replacing ordinary brickwork in many instances. It is sometimes faced with brick in exterior walls, and• is used for partitions and in solid floor construction on account of its lightness and low cost.

Stone masonry is largely used in architectural construction, where the appearance and permanence of the structure are of special importance. It is almost universally employed in monumental construction, being at once the most durable material known to roan and the one capable of producing the most imposing and most beau tiful effect.

Many- engineering structures such as retaining walls, bridge piers, and abutments and arch bridges are often constructed of stone masonry, or are faced with stone. Concrete is, however, gradually replacing stone masonry for such work on account of lower cost and facility of construction, except where facing of stone is used for appearance or durability.

Concrete is almost universally employed in foundations, having replaced stone masonry for this purpose. In the construction of tunnels, subways, and other underground work, it is usually the cheapest and most convenient material. In heavy masonry, such as retaining Nvalls, dams, piers, and abutments, concrete is com monly used, alone or with a facing of stone masonry.

The use of reinforcement makes it possible to apply concrete in many types of construction to Nv1iie1i masonry has heretofore been inapplicable. For short-span bridges reinforced concrete is rapidly replacing wood and steel, and, on account of its durability, is a much more economical material for such use. Reinforced concrete is extensively used in fireproof building construction for floors, beams, and columns, and is frequently used in connection with hollow tile for this purpose. It is sometimes used for the walls of buildings but is apt to be more expensive than brick, on account of the forms necessary in such work.