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Recent Developments 5

cement, portland, methods, manufacture, natural and hydraulic

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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 5. The Cement Industry.—Tlre discovery by the Romans of the hydraulic properties of volcanic lava, and the location of other materials possessing the same properties, made possible the con struction of subaqueous tnasonry work. No considerable progress, however, was made in such work.

About the middle of the eighteenth century Smeaton, a noted English engineer, discovered that lime made from certain limestones containing clay possessed hydraulic properties. This discovery opened new possibilities in under-water work, and these hydraulic limes were used to a limited extent during the next half century.

In 1796 James Parker, an Englishman, burned limestone con taining a larger proportion of clay and ground the product. He thus produced the first natural cement, which he called Raman cement. This process was patented, and the manufacture of natural cement resulted.

In 1818 Canvas White, an engineer of the Erie Canal, located rock suitable for making natural cement in Madison County, New York, and the first cement produced in the United States was made in the same year. Five years later the manufacture of natural cement was begun at Rosendale, New York. The production of cement in this region extended, and cement was thus provided for most of the hydraulic construction in this country for a considerable period. Later, as the development of the country proceeded, and demands for cement increased, deposits of cement rock were found at many other places. Natural cement plants were established along the James River in Virginia; in the Lehigh Valley, in Pennsyl vania; at Louisville, Kentucky; Utica, Illinois; Milwaukee, Wis consin, and a number of other localities.

In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, of Leeds, England, discovered that by burning a mixture of slaked lime and clay at high temperature, hydraulic cement was produced. Aspdin named this material Portland Cement, on account of its resemblance to Portland stone, then largely used in England. In 1845 the manufacture of Port land cement was begun on a commercial scale by J. B. White & Sons,

in Kent.

During the period between 1830 and 1850 Vicat, in France, made a number of studies which were of great value in extending knowledge of the new material. Plants were soon established in France and Germany for the manufacture of Portland cement, and the industry became an important one throughout Europe. During the next few years, 1865 to 1SSO, John Grant made a series of investi gations of the properties of Portland cement and methods of using it in mortars and concrete. Ilis papers before the Institution of Civil Engineers had a marked influence in shaping the methods of use of cement.

From 1880 to 1900 the Portland cement industry developed rapidly in Europe, and numerous studies were made concerning the composition and properties of the material. LeChatelier, Alex andre, Candlot, and Feret, in France, Tetmajer in Switzerland, Michaelis and Bohme in Germany, F'aija in England, and a number of others, investigated all phases of the subject, greatly improving the quality of the cement and showing methods of employing it in construction to secure the best results.

In 1S75 Mr. D. 0. Saylor began the manufacture of cement at Coplay, Pennsylvania. From this beginning, the American Port land cement industry has developed. Great improvements in methods of manufacture and in the control of the character of the product have been made in this country. The studies of Newberry, Richardson, and others have contributed to definite knowledge of the proper composition of the material, while committees of the National Engineering Societies and many independent investigators have perfected methods of testing cement and of using it in con struction.

This industry has now reached immense proportions in the United States, and the use of Portland cement has extended in all directions, modifying largely the types and methods of construction used in all classes of structures.

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