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Masonry Structures by Frederick Putman Spalding (1921)

Properties Of Clay And
Properties Of Clay And Siiale Brick Good Building Brick Should Show A Uniform Compact Structure Without Laminations. They Should Have Plane, Parallel Faces And Sharp Edges, And Should Not Show Kiln Marks On Their Edges. The Dry-pressed And Re-pressed Bricks Are Usually Smoother And More Accurate In Shape Than Those ...

Proportioning Concrete
Proportioning Concrete Arbitrary Proportions.—the Common Method Of Propor Tioning Concrete Is By Assuming Ratios Between The Volumes Of Cement, Sand, And Coarse Aggregate. These Proportions Are Varied Accord Ing To The Character Of The Work, And Sometimes Are Adjusted To The Qualities Of The Materials. A Formula. Of Definite Proportions ...

Railroad Falsework Grade 8
Railroad Falsework Grade 8. This Grade Includes Red And All Other Oaks Not Included In Railroad Heart Grade, Sycamore, Sweet, Black And Tupelo Gum, Maple, Clot, Hickory, Norm-ay Pine, Or Any Sound Timber That Will Stand Driving. 0. The Requirements For Size Of Tip And Butt, Taper And Lateral Curvature ...

Railroad Heart Grade 1
Railroad Heart Grade 1. This Grade Includes White, Burr, And Post Oak; Longleaf Pine, Douglas Fir, Tamarack, Eastern White And Red Cedar, Chestnut, Western Cedar, Redwood And Cypress. • 2. Piles Shall Be Cut From Sound Trees; Shall Be Close-grained And Solid, Free From Defects, Such As Injurious Ring Shakes, ...

Recent Developments 5
Recent Developments 5. The Cement Industry.—tlre Discovery By The Romans Of The Hydraulic Properties Of Volcanic Lava, And The Location Of Other Materials Possessing The Same Properties, Made Possible The Con Struction Of Subaqueous Tnasonry Work. No Considerable Progress, However, Was Made In Such Work. About The Middle Of The ...

Rectangular Beams With Tension
Rectangular Beams With Tension Reinforcement 105. Flexure Formulas.—the Common Or Straight-line Formulas For Reinforced Concrete Beams Are Based Upon The Ordinary Theory Of Flexure, And Involve The Following Assumptions: (1) A Section Of The Beam That Is Plane Before Bending Remains Plane When Bent. (2) The Modulus Of Elasticity .of ...

Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced Concrete Object Of Reinforcement.—conerete And Steel Are Frequently Combined In Structural Work In Two Distinct Types Of Construction: 1. Structural Jlenth'rs Of Steel Encased In This Type Of Construction, The Steel Member Is Designed To Carry The Loads, And The Concrete Is Used For Protection Of The Steel Against ...

Reinforced Concrete Dams
Reinforced Concrete Dams Reinforcement In Arch Designers Have Used Steel Reinforcement In Arch Clams, Where It Has Seemed Desirable To Prevent The Possible Development Of Cracks, Or To Give Additional Security Where The Uncertainty Concerning Stresses Made Tensions Seen Possible Under Certain Conditions. Cracks May Result From Changes Of Temperature ...

Reinforced Concrete Walls 129
Reinforced Concrete Walls 129. Types Of Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls.—there Are Two Types Of Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls In Common Use: 1. The Cantilever Type And 2, The Counterforted Type. Both Of These Depend Upon The Weight Of Earth Carried By The Base Of The Wall To Prevent Overturning. They ...

Sand For Mortar
Sand For Mortar Quality Of Sand.—as Hydraulic Cement Is Commonly Mixed With Certain Proportions Of Sand, When Used In Construction, The Nature And Quality Of Sand Used, And The Method Of Manipulating The Materials In Forming The Mortar Have Quite As Important, An Effect Upon The Final Strength Of The ...

Slab And Beam Design
Slab And Beam Design Bending Moments And Shears.—structural Forms In Which Slabs Of Concrete Are Supported By T-beams Are Very Common In Rein Forced Concrete Structures. In This Type Of Construction, The Slab Is Commonly Made Continuous Over The T-bcam And Forms The Flange Of The 'f-beam (see Fig. 53), ...

Solid Masonry Walls 126
Solid Masonry Walls 126. Stability Of Walls.—a Masonry Retaining Wall May Fail In Either Of Three Ways: 1. By Overturning Or Rotating About Its Toe. 2. By Crushing The Masonry. 3. By Sliding On A Horizontal Joint. Insufficient Foundation Is Probably The Most Common Cause Of Failure Of Retaining Wall;. ...

Specifications And Tests For
Specifications And Tests For Cement Standard Specifications.—the Specifications Of The American Society For Testing Materials Are Now Commonly Recognized As Standard And Used In The Purchase Of Cement In The United States. These Specifications Were Adopted In 1904 And Revised In 1908, 1909, And 1916. In Specifications For Construction Of ...

Spread Foundations 188
Spread Foundations 188. Distribution Of Loads.—when Bedrock Is At Considerable Depth, It Frequently Becomes Necessary To Spread Foundations Ovor Large Areas Near The Surface Of The Ground By The Use Of Footings At The Bases Of Columns Or Walls. The Method To Be Employed In Such Work Depends Upon The ...

Stone Cutting
Stone Cutting Tools For Stone Cutting.—the Kinds Of Finish Used In Dressing Stone Are Usually Defined By Mentioning The Tool With Which The Dressing Is Done. The Following Definitions Were Recommended By A Committee Of The American Society Of Civil Engineers In 1877, And Have Since Been Commonly Employed. " ...

Strength Of Plain Concrete
Strength Of Plain Concrete Compressive Strength.—there Are Several Variables Which Affect The Strength Of Concrete. The Quality And Quantity Of Cement, The Kind Of Aggregates And Their Grading, The Proportions Of Fine To Coarse Aggregate, The Thoroughness Of Mixing, The Consistency, The Degree Of Compacting, And The Conditions Under Which ...

Strength Of Stone Masonry
Strength Of Stone Masonry Compressive Strength.—stone Masonry Varies Widely In Strength According To The Character Of The Construction. The Accuracy With Which The Joints Are Dressed, The Strength Of The Mor Tar, The Bonding Of The Masonry And Size Of Blocks Of Stone Are More Important Than The Strength Of ...

T Beams With Tension Reinforcement
T-beams With Tension Reinforcement 111. Flexure Formulas.—in A Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Beam, In Which The Steel Carries All The Tension, The Area Of Concrete Below The Neutral Axis Does Not Affect The Resisting Moment Of The Beam. The Office Of This Concrete Is To Hold The Steel In Place And ...

Terra Cotta Construction
Terra Cotta Construction Structural Tiling.—hollow Tiling For Use In Building Con Struction Is Made In Many Different Forms. It Is Employed Either As The Main Structural Material Or As Fireproof Covering For Other Materials. The Materials Of Which The Tiles Are Made Are Similar To Those Used In Making Bricks, ...

The Elastic Arch 163
The Elastic Arch 163. Analysis Of Fixed Arch.—keinforced Concrete Arches Are Commonly Constructed As Solid Curved Beams Firmly Fixed To The Abutments. Lnan Alyzing Them, It Is Assumed That The Abutments Are Im Movable And The Ends Of The Arch Firmly Held In Their Original Positions. Let Fig. Ss Repre ...

Types Of Concrete Arches
Types Of Concrete Arches Arrangement Of Spandrels.—in Ordinary Bridges Of Short Span, Solid Arches With Filled Spandrels Are Commonly Employed, As Shown In The Example Of The Last Article. In Such Arches, Spandrel Walls Are Used To Retain The Filling Above The Arch Ring. These Are Usually Light Reinforced Walls ...

Voussoir Arches
Voussoir Arches Masonry Arch Is A Structure Of Masonry Spanning An Opening And Carrying Its Loads As Longitudinal Thrust, Which Exert Outward As Well As Vertical Thrusts Upon The Abutments. A Voussoir Arch Is One In Which The Arch Ring Is Composed Of A Number Of Independent Blocks Of Stone ...

Walls Of Stone Masonry
Walls Of Stone Masonry 46. Classification Of Masonry.—stone Work Is Commonly Divided Into Two General Classes; Ashlar And Rubble, Depending Upon The Degree Of Care Exercised In Cutting The Stone And The Closeness Of The Joints. Ashlar Masonry Is That In Which The Joints Are Not More Than Inch Thick. ...

Watertight Concrete 87
Watertight Concrete 87. Permeability Of Concrete.—the Permeability Of A Wall Of Concrete Varies With The Size And Shape Of The Aggregates, The Density Of The Mixture, And The Richness Of The Mortar. For Given Aggre Gates, The Densest And Strongest Mixture Will Usually Be The Least Permeable, Although The Least ...