STONE CUTTING Tools for Stone Cutting.—The kinds of finish used in dressing stone are usually defined by mentioning the tool with which the dressing is done. The following definitions were recommended by a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1877, and have since been commonly employed.
" The Double-face Tlammer (Fig. 4) is a heavy tool weighing from 20 to 30 pounds, used for roughly shaping stones as they come from the quarry, and knocking off projections. This is used only for the roughest work.
" The Face Hammer (Fig. 5) has one blunt and one cutting end, and is used for the same purpose as the double-face hammer where less weight is required. The cutting end is used for roughly squaring stones, preparatory to the use of finer tools.
" The cavil (Fig. 6) has one blunt and one pyramidal end, and weighs from 15 to 20 pounds. It is used in quarries for roughly shaping stones for transportation.
" The Pick (Fig. 7) somewhat resembles the pick used in digging, and is used for rough dressing, mostly on sandstone and limestone. Its length varies from 15 to 24 inches, the thickness at the eye being about two inches.
" The Axe or Pean Hammer (Fig. 8) has two opposite cutting edges. It is used for making drafts around the arris, or edge of stones, and in reducing faces, and sometimes joints to a level. Its length is about 10 inches, and the cutting edges about 4 inches. It is used after the point and before the patent hammer.
" Tooth Axe (Fig. 9) is like the axe, except that its cutting edges are divided into teeth, the number of which varies with the kind of work required. This tool is not used on granite and gneiss cut ting.
" The Bush Hammer (Fig. 10) is a square prism of steel whose ends are cut into a number of pyramidal points. The length of the hammer is from 4 to S inches, and the cutting face from 2 to 4 inches square. The points vary in number with the size of the work to be done.
" The Patent Hammer (Fig. 11) is a double-headed tool so formed as to hold at each end a set of wide thin chisels. The tool is in two
parts which are held together by the bolts which hold the chisels. Lateral motion is prevented by four guards on one of the pieces. The tool without teeth is 5 X2 X1. inches. The teeth are 2; inches wide. Their thickness varies from kv to c inch. This tool is used for giving a finish to the surface of stones.
" The Crandall (Fig. 12) is a malleable iron bar about 2 feet long, slightly flattened at one end. In this end is a slot 3 inches long and inch wide. Through this slot are passed ten double-headed points of }-inch squared steel, 9 inches long, which are held in place by a key.
"The Hand Hammer, weighing from 2 to :i pounds, is used in drill ing holes, and in pointing and chiseling the harder rocks.
" The Mallet is used where the softer limestones and sandstones are to be cut.
" The Pitching Chisel (Fig. 13a) is usually of Q-inch octagonal steel, spread on the cutting edge to a rectangle of 1 by 22 inches. It is used to make a well-defined edge to the face of the stone, a line being marked on the joint surface to which the chisel is applied, and the portion of the stone outside of the line broken off by a blow with the hand hammer on the head of the chisel.
" The Point (Fig. 13b) is made of round or octagonal rods of steel from to 1 inch in diameter. It is made about 12 inches long, with one end brought to a point. It is used until its length is reduced to about 5 inches. It is employed for dressing off the irregular sur faces of stones, either for a permanent finish or preparatory to the use of the axe. According to the hardness of the stone, either the hand hammer or the mallet is used with it.
" The Chisel (Fig. 13c) of round steel I to inch in diameter and about 10 inches long, with one end brought to a cutting edge from to 2 inches wide, is used for cutting drafts or margins on the faces of stones.
" The Tooth Chisel (Fig. 13d) is the same as the chisel except that the cutting edge is divided into teeth. It is used only on mar bles and sandstones.