LETTERING OF DRAWINGS 145. The lettering on a working drawing, while not the most important feature, neverthe less demands some attention. The appearance of an otherwise good drawing may be quite spoiled by poor or inappropriate lettering. The letter for practical use must first be legible, and it must admit of being rapidly and easily made.
A very considerable difference exists between the styles of letters used in engineering and machine drawing practice, and those used in architects' offices.
Figs. 125 to 128 inclusive are examples of good, plain letters for engineering and machine drawing. This style of letter is known in machine drawing as the Gothic. The inclined letters are especially suitable for notes on the drawings.
For architectural working drawings, a style of letter is used which is derived more or less directly from the Roman capitals. This style of letter, of which examples are shown in Figs.
129 and 130, admits of a freer and easier treat ment than do those usually found on machine drawings.
Spacing. Whatever the style of letter used, the general effect will be marred or improved according as the spacing is bad or good. For the correct spacing, no hard and fast rule can be given; but it may be said in a general way, that the letters should be so placed that the area of the spaces between them should be about equal.
The amount of time that can be devoted to lettering a working drawing, is in general com paratively small; so the bulk of the lettering is done freehand, except on important titles for particular work, where some instrumental con struction may be used. A careful study of the letters given in the figures, coupled with pains taking practice, will put the beginner on the road to facility in making the various letter forms.
Working Drawings for Building Construction 146. These, as already stated, are usually drawn to the scale of in. = 1 ft., with details at in. = 1 ft., or full size.
The number of drawings required for the building of a house necessarily varies somewhat according to its character. There should be, however, plans of each floor, including the roof and the basement or foundation plan. There
should be also as many elevations and sections as may be necessary fully to explain the con struction. Plans of the different floors, showing the framing, may also be required.
For particular details, such as cornices, win dow casings, balusters, mouldings, etc., it is good practice to draw the details at full size. Iso metric and perspective are also often very helpful in the case of complicated details.
Conventional Representations. In Fig. 131 is shown the usual manner of representing on a working drawing some familiar details.
147. Working Plans for a Residence. In Figs. 132 to 139 inclusive, are shown the work ing plans for a two-family house.
Fig. 132 is the basement or cellar plan. Notice the over-all dimensions, and the dimen sion lines drawn as faint full lines. It is often the custom on tracings blue-prints to draw construction or dimension lines with a narrow, full, red line. The red line prints much fainter than the black. Observe also the use of the conventional representations for the stonework, the windows, and the single-swing doors.
In the first and second floor plans, Figs. 133 and 134, the arrangement of the rooms is the same. The door between the dining room and pantry is one of the double-swing kind, as indi cated on the drawing. The stairs up to the third floor are above the ones down to the first. Notice that here confusion is avoided by the irregular break in the stairs, and by the use of the arrows with the words "Up" and "Down." Observe that the center lines of the windows are located from the walls of the house.
In Figs. 136 to 139 inclusive are shown four elevations. Care should be taken to compare the different views to see that Fig. 137 is the left side elevation, and Fig. 138 the elevation of the right side. The elevations are to show the distances between floors, arrangement of windows and sizes of glass, and in general the exterior finish, as shingles, siding, etc.
For these drawings a separate roof plan was not required.