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Radford's Cyclopedia of Construction, Vol 1: Mechanical Drafting

Architectural Drawings
Architectural Drawings Architectural Drawings May Be Classified As Follows: Preliminary Drawings Are Small Studies Of The Proposed New Work, Freehand Or Otherwise, At A Small Scale, Finished In An Attractive Man Ner. There Are Three Classes Of Preliminary Drawings—namely, Sketches, Perspectives, And Competitive Sketches. Preliminary Sketches. In Architectural Work, No ...

Architectural Forms
Architectural Forms Having Considered The General Method In The Drawing Of Architectural Plans, We Shall Now Consider Some Of The General Forms Employed To Represent Different Parts Of The Work. Such A Partition. Where A Brick Wall Is Furred On The Inside And Then Plastered, We Use The Ordinary Symbol ...

Architectural Lettering
Architectural Lettering Good Lettering Is An Essential Requisite Of A Good Set Of Plans. A Poorly Executed But Lettered Attractively And Well, Will Look A Great Deal Better Than One Which Is Well Drawn But Which Is Poorly Lettered. Therefore, At The Start, Let It Be Said That A Draftsman ...

Details Of Construction
Details Of Construction It Is Essential To Know The Usual Method Of Detailing Different Portions Of The Building. For The Clear Understanding Of Some Of The Impor Tant Parts Of A Building, There Have Been Pre Pared Some Typical Details. The Reader, Having Become Familiar With The Details Shown, Can ...

Geometrical Problems 46
Geometrical Problems 46. There Are Certain Problems Of Geomet Rical Construction Which It Is Essential That The Intelligent Draftsman Should Know. We Shall Now Present Some Of The,' More Common Of These Problems. To Bisect A Given Straight Line Let Ab, Fig. 25, Be The Given Line. With B As ...

How To Use The
How To Use The Instruments 27. Drawing Board, And Triangles. Tack A Sheet Of Drawing Paper On The Board By A Thumb-tack At Each Corner, And Let The T Square Rest On The Paper, With The Head Against The Left Edge Of The Drawing Board. If The Draftsman Is Left-handed, ...

Intersection And Development 75
Intersection And Development. The Case When The Pyramid Is Triangular And The Intersecting Plan Cuts All Three Edges, Even If The Plane Should Not Be Parallel To The Base. Second, The Sides Of The Triangle Abc Are Re Spectively Parallel To The Edges Of The Base Of The Pyramid. This ...

Lettering Of Drawings 145
Lettering Of Drawings 145. The Lettering On A Working Drawing, While Not The Most Important Feature, Neverthe Less Demands Some Attention. The Appearance Of An Otherwise Good Drawing May Be Quite Spoiled By Poor Or Inappropriate Lettering. The Letter For Practical Use Must First Be Legible, And It Must Admit ...

Note
Note 1—a Polygon Of Any Number Of Sides Which Has All Of Its Corners In The Circumference Of An Enclosing Circle, Is Said To Be Inscribed In The Circle. Note 2—the Length Of The Radius Of A Circle May Be Spaced Around The Circumference Exactly Six Times. To Construct An ...

Orders Of Architecture
Orders Of Architecture In The Study Of Architectural History, We Turn To The Greeks And Romans For A Great Many Fundamental Principles Of Design. We See That They Had Proportions For Everything. Adopting Some Unit, The Building Was Designed And Erected With This As A Unit. They Had Certain Arrangements ...

Penciling And Inking
Penciling And Inking Exemses For Practice In Using The T-square, Triangles, And Scales 45. Plate 2 Is To Be Laid Out 10 Inches By 14 Inches, Outside Dimensions, With A Border Line 9 Inches By 13 Inches. The Paper Used Should Be A Good Drawing Paper, Preferably A High-grade Hot- ...

Pictorial Drawing 110
Pictorial Drawing 110. Graphical Representations Which Give More Or Less Of A Picture Effect, Are Sometimes Very Useful Adjuncts To Practical Drafting. To The Untrained Eye, Such A Drawing—of A Building, For Example—conveys A Much Clearer Idea Than Plans And Elevations. The Same Would Be True Of Any Other Complicated ...

Practical Drafting
Practical Drafting The Draftsman's Qualifications 132. Before Taking Up The Subject Of Work Ing Drawings, A Few Words May Be Said Concern Ing The Draftsman Himself. There Are Draftsmen Good, Bad, And Indif Ferent. There Is The Man Who Apparently Has No Concern About His Employer's Interests, Yet Perhaps Wonders ...

Projection 49
Projection 49. The Term Projection As Used In Mechan Ical Drafting, May Be Explained As Follows: Assume Any Object, As A Cube, And A Plane Above It And Parallel To The Upper Face, As In Fig. 40. Now, If Parallel Lines Be Drawn From The Corners Of The Cube, And ...

Rendering
Rendering Finished Drawings May Be Colored Or Ren Dered In A Number Of Ways. The Method Of Pen-and-ink Rendering Is Very Often Used. It Is Indeed An Accomplishment To Be Able To Render In Pen And Ink Successfully. This Usually Comes Only From Long And Patient Work In Practicing. A ...

Reproducing Drawings
Reproducing Drawings The Question Of The Method Of Reproducing Drawings Is An Important One As To Cost And Time Consumed. New Methods Are Being Adver Tised On The Market Every Day. Where Changes Are Necessary It Will Do. White-printing. From Working Drawings, White Prints Can Be Made. This Kind Of ...

Second
Second Case—when The Point On The Given Line Is At Or Near One End. Let Ab, Fig. 29, Be The Given Line, And C The Given Point. With Point C As Center, And Any Radius, Draw An Arc Cutting Ab At Point 1; Then, With 1 As A Center, And ...

Shades And Shadows
Shades And Shadows In Order To Prepare Sketches And Make Them Attractive, A Brief Treatment Of Shades And Shadows Will Be Taken Up, The Main General Rules And Principles Being Explained, Which May He Applied To Ordinary Architectural Drawing. By The Use Of Shades And Shadows, Very Im Portant Effects ...

Sketching
Sketching In All Architectural Work, The Art Of Sketch Ing Is Important. To Be Able To Show One's Ideas Clearly And Artistically, Or To Reproduce Some Form Or Object In A Pleasing Manner, Is Indeed An Essential Qualification For The Draftsman As Well As The Architect. Sonic Have A Natural ...

Structural Drafting 148
Structural Drafting 148. By Structural Drafting Is Meant The Drafting Of The Iron And Steel Framework Which Enters So Largely Into The Construction Of The Steel Bridge And The Modern Office Or Commer Cial Building. It Is Impracticable Within The Limits Of The Present Work To Enter Into Any Extended ...

The Draftsmans Outfit 2
The Draftsman's Outfit 2. For A Beginner To Do Good Work, Reliable Tools Are Necessary. It Is Worth While To Pay A Little More Money At The Outset In Order To Have An Equipment Which Will Give Satisfactory Service. Perhaps Nothing Is More Disheartening To A Beginner Than To Have ...

Wash Drawings
Wash Drawings Water-colors Or India Ink For Coloring Draw Ings, Are Used For The Best Work, Almost Entirely. By Means Of Color Or By The Use Of India Ink For A Monotone, The Shades And Shadows Can Be Emphasized And The Drawing Made Much More Attractive. The Usual Method Of ...

Working Drawings 134
Working Drawings 134. A Working Drawing Is One Which Is De Signed For Actual Use In The Shop Or Field. It Is The Drawing Which Goes Out From The Drafting Room, And Which Conveys To The Mechanic Or Builder Instructions As To The Machine, Bridge, Building, Or Other Construction Which ...