ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE In the study of architectural history, we turn to the Greeks and Romans for a great many fundamental principles of design. We see that they had proportions for everything. Adopting some unit, the building was designed and erected with this as a unit. They had certain arrangements of a cornice, a column, and a base which have been handed down for ages. All of the parts had certain relations to one an other in size. This combination we have called an Order.
We have four Orders which are used in archi Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, and Cor inthian. (See Figs. 83 to 86.) A fifth Order— the Composite fea tures of the others.
It will be noticed that all the ornamentation on the mouldings has been omitted for the sake of clearness in revealing the important propor tions. Each Order has the three main divisions entablature, column, and pedestal. In our architectural design, the base or pedestal is Fig. 84 shows the Doric Order. This has a great deal of ornament, both on the soffit of the corona (the projecting, crowning member of the cornice), and on the mouldings. in most modern designs, we see this Order modified more or less.
There are two types of cornices used with the Doric Order—one with the mutules (project ing flat blocks ornamented on the under sur face); and the other with the dentils (a course of small cubes in the bed-moulding). The general profile of the cornice is different in the two types. The shaft is very often fluted.
Fig. 85 shows the Ionic Order, with the prin cipal proportions. The cornice may have brackets called modillions, or it may have the dentils. The capital for the column varies, the left-hand half showing the cushion capital, and the right half shows the volute turned at 45 degrees, thus giving all faces alike. The shaft is fluted, and the mouldings are usually ornamented.
Fig. 86 shows the Corinthian Order. The main difference from the other Orders is the capital, which is highly ornamented by means of acanthus leaves. This Order is probably the most dignified, and is also the most expensive. Sometimes the shaft is fluted. The mouldings are all greatly ornamented.
There is a variation of the Corinthian Order, called the Composite Order, already re ferred to. The chief difference is in the volutes of the capital, they being much larger and turned out the same way as in the true Corinthian.
All of these Orders are modified to a greater or less degree in all applications of them, each architect making changes to conform to general styles he is using on the building. The propor tions, however, cannot be varied much without spoiling the general effect of the Order.
Fig. 87 gives some of the common forms of mouldings, with the corresponding names.