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lines, ink, line, drawing and pen

RENDERING Finished drawings may be colored or ren dered in a number of ways. The method of pen-and-ink rendering is very often used. It is indeed an accomplishment to be able to render in pen and ink successfully. This usually comes only from long and patient work in practicing. A drawing may also be rendered in pencil, or colored by means of water-colors.

For pen-and-ink rendering, any black ink will do. A good grade of India ink is very satisfactory and convenient. There was a time when all drawing inks were made by grinding a stick of India ink in water on a stone bed; but now prepared inks are used almost entirely. The pens should be fairly large, and have a medium point; the tendency of beginners is to use too fine a point. Any good-quality tracing paper may be used.

The outline of the work may be made upon scratch paper; and, by placing the tracing paper over it, the ink rendering can be made directly over the outline. Papers with soft sur faces should be avoided, since the ink will have a tendency to spread, the points of the pen will often catch and spatter ink, and erasing is almost impossible. Good Bristol board makes a satisfactory surface to work upon.


All lines should he firm and uniform, and series of parallel lines should give an even texture or appearance to a surface. Avoid the stiff, hair lines, which are too fine to give any character to the work. In making ink lines, while the general direction of the line may be straight, yet a line slightly wavy, or a line such as would be made by the trembling of the hand, is not objectionable.

Use care in drawing lines to make them as uniform as possible, and exercise care in the starting and stopping of lines. Lines should

naturally be a little heavier at the ending than at the beginning.

Referring to Fig. 80, we see in this draw ing, the general method of rendering a building in pen and ink. The window-panes, instead of being hard, sharp lines, are made by a series of parallel lines representing the shadow. Notice the treatment of the roof, the shadow of the cornice, and the general lines of the building.

Fig. 81 shows the use of parallel lines en tirely for the texture of the wall, and also for the shadows.

Fig. 82 shows a very attractive drawing. Study the foliage around the house; see how it has been represented by lines, sometimes straight and sometimes curved. The distance to the background is obtained by the quality of the line; the further away the background, the lighter the line. Study the lines represent ing the wall and roof surfaces. Notice that the lines in general are not straight, but are more or less irregular. The shadows in Figs. 81 and 82 are composed of entirely different kinds of lines. Probably the best and easiest method is by the use of vertical lines. Notice, generally speaking, that there are no long lines. If it is necessary to make such a line, let it be represented by a series of short lines, with their ends almost touching. The tendency of the beginner is to make the rendering all too light. Put in some black, somewhere, as it makes the drawing more in contrast, and emphasizes other portions of the work.

Plate G is a good example of a sketch ren dered in pen and ink.