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Dependence of the Glycosuria upon the Kind of Carbohydrates Ingested

sugar, grape, diabetic and levulose

DEPENDENCE OF THE GLYCOSURIA UPON THE KIND OF CARBOHYDRATES INGESTED.

Wherever exhaustive researches have been instituted it has always been found that no case of diabetes in man is so severe that all the carbohydrates ingested are excreted again uncousumed Leo, and others). Furthermore it has been shown, as was discovered by and confirmed later by C. von Voit, F. Voit, von Noorden, Minkowski, S. Solis Cohen, Saundby, Bohland, and others, that the diabetic organism is not impotent in equal degree in the presence of all kinds of carbohydrates.

If equal weights of different kinds of carbohydrates are adminis tered in succession, the diet otherwise remaining the same, it is found tható Grape sugar (dextrose, glucose) raises the percentage of sugar in the urine to the highest point and the most quickly.

Starch and other carbohydrates (such as maltose and dextrin) which, either in the digestive tract or immediately after their absorp tion, are converted into grape sugar, approach grape sugar very closely in this respect.

Fruit sugar (levulose) increases the glycosuria to only half the extent, or even less, that grape sugar does.

Milk sugar and cane sugar occupy a middle place, in their glyco suric action, between grape sugar and levulose.

The fact that the diabetic organism disposes of some sorts of sugar molecules better than of others is both theoretically and prac tically important, becauseó a. It is incomprehensible on the theory of an "over-production

of sugar," but is easily explicable on the theory of a "diminished consumption of sugar." It finds its analogue in the decomposition of carbohydrates by certain vegetable cells. For example, the com mon yeast fungus (Saccharomyces apiculatus) seizes upon grape sugar and fruit sugar and converts them into alcohol and carbonic acid, but it has no power over cane sugar, milk sugar, or other varieties.

b. It is worthy of remark that levulose is comparatively well borne by diabetics. It is after the ingestion of this special form of sugar by diabetic animals that large amounts of glycogen are stored up in the liver, while the organ remains free from the substance after the ingestion of grape sugar and starch.

c. It is important as regards the nourishment of sufferers from diabetes that some variety of carbohydrate should be known which is not as readily excreted unchanged through the kidneys, but which, through its consumption in the body, assists iu the production of heat and force.