On streets paved with a smooth hard surface which is easily cleaned, such as brick or asphalt, special foot way crossings are not usually required or desirable, unless the foot travel be very considerable. On other pavements, however, which are apt to be rough to walk upon or muddy in bad weather, as upon stone, or macadam, footways of flagstones, brick, or concrete are commonly provided.
Stone crossings consist of flagstones about Io or 12 inches wide laid in rows across the street, the rows being 6 or 8 inches apart and paved between with stone blocks set in the ordinary manner. The crossing stones are 3 or 4 feet long, and at least 6 inches thick in order that they may not be broken by the traffic. They should be laid with close joints and firmly bedded upon the foundation.
Brick crossings are usually constructed in the same manner as brick street pavements, being laid upon concrete base and having joints filled with cement mortar. They should be slightly crowned, so as to raise the crossing a little above the general level of the street and facilitate keeping them clean. These cross ings are sometimes laid as double layer brick pavements with sand filled joints, but in general the better grade of construction is but slightly more expensive and is much more durable in use.
Concrete street crossings are placed in the same manner as concrete sidewalks. They should, like brick crossings, have a crown to aid in keeping them clean. Crossings, and sidewalks across alley openings or drive ways, need to be somewhat heavier than ordinary sidewalks and are usually about 6 inches thick. It is common to cut longitudinal V-shaped grooves, about I inch to i inch wide, I to I inch deep, and 4 inches apart, in the surface of the walk to afford a foothold to horses in crossing it. These grooves may readily be formed by use of the tool used in finishing joints, and are of material benefit in preventing the slipping of horses.
At street intersections where the number of pedes trians is large it is desirable that the crossing be carried across on the level of the top of the curb without leaving a step at the gutter crossing. This may be accomplished by bridging over the gutter with a flag stone or iron plate, or by placing the outlets for surface drainage a few feet back from the corner and eliminating the gutter at the corner.