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Textbook on Roads and Pavements by Frederick Putman Spalding (1908)

Abrasion Test
Abrasion Test. In The Convention Of 1897 The Brick Manufacturers' Association Adopted A Method For This Test Consisting In Rattling A Given Charge Of Bricks In A Cylinder Rotat Ing About Its Axis, Which Is Horizontal, And Depending For Its Result Upon The Impact And Abrasion Of The Bricks Upon ...

Absorption Test
Absorption Test. This Test Is Made By Weighing The Specimen Dry, Then Saturating It With Water, Weighing Again, And Stating The Absorption As A Percentage Of The Dry Weight. The Commission Of The Brick Manufacturers' Association Oppose The Use Of This Test, But Recommend The Following Procedure For The Test ...

Arrangement Of City Streets
Arrangement Of City Streets. The Proper Location For Diagonal Streets Intended As Thoroughfares For Traffic Is Naturally Determined By The Positions Of The Business Centers Or Public Buildings And Parks, From Which They May Radiate In Such Manner As To Bring The Outlying Portions Of The City Into The Most ...

Asphalt Blocks
Asphalt Blocks. Asphalt Paving Blocks Are Frequently Formed Of A Mixture Of Asphalt Cement And Crushed Stone. The Stone Used Is Mainly Trap, Or Granite, Broken So As To Pass A Inch Screen. In Early Work, Limestone Was Used; This Was Found To Lack Durability On Account Of The Softness ...

Asphaltic Cement
Asphaltic Cement. Crude Asphalts As They Occur In Nature Usually Con, Tain Considerable Water, Which Needs To Be Removed Before The Material Can Be Used. In Order To Remove This Water And Any Vegetable Impurities Which The Crude Material May Contain, The Asphalt Is Refined By Heating Sufficiently To Vaporize ...

Benefits Derived From Good
Benefits Derived From Good Roads. The Condition Of The Public Highways Is A Matter Of The Most Vital Interest To Any Rural Community. Upon It Depends Largely The Social Life And Enjoyment Of The People Living In The Country As Well As The Ability To Market The Products Of The ...

Binder Course
Binder Course. An Intermediate Layer Known As The Binder Course Is Now Commonly Placed Between The Base And Surface Layer. This Layer Is Ordinarily About I Inches Thick And Consists Of Broken Stone, Which Passes Through A Inch Screen, Mixed With Sufficient Bitumen To Thor Oughly Coat The Pieces Of ...

Bitulithic Pavement
Bitulithic Pavement. The Name "bitulithic" Is Commonly Applied To A Pavement, The, Surface Of Which Is Composed Of A Bituminous Concrete, The Aggregate Being A Mixture Of Several Sizes Of Broken Stone, So Proportioned As To Give A Dense Material With A Small Percentage Of Voids. Pavements Of Bituminous Concrete ...

Bitumen
Bitumen. The Bitumen Which Forms The Essential Part Of Asphalt Consists Of A Mixture Of Hydrocarbons Of Various Compositions And In Varying Proportions. It Is Not, Therefore, A Compound Of Definite Composition, And Little Can Be Inferred, From Its Ultimate Analysis As To The Character Of The Material. These Hydrocar ...

Bituminous Macadam
Bituminous Macadam. The Term "tar Macadam" Or Sometimes "bitumi Nous Macadam" Has Been Used To Cover The Use Of Bituminous Materials For Bonding Together Or Preserv Ing The Surface Of Broken-stone Roads In A Variety Of Ways. In Some Instances, The Tar Is Only Used To Coat The Surface Of ...

Brick Pavements The
Brick Pavements. The Requisites For A Good Paving-brick Are That It Shall Be Hard, Tough, And Impervious, As Well As Capable Of Enduring Against The Disintegrating Influences Of The Weather. The Bricks In Most Common Use Are Made From Fire Clay Of An Inferior Quality, Or From An Indurated Clay ...

Broken Stone
Broken-stone Roads Consist Essentially Of A Mass Of Angular Fragments Of Rock Deposited, Usually In Layers, Upon The Road-bed Or A Foundation Prepared For It, And Then Consolidated To A Smooth And Uniform Surface By Means Of A Roller Or By The Action Of The Traffic Which Passes Over It. ...

Broken Stone Roads I2i
Broken-stone Roads. I2i Upon This Pavement The Layers Of Broken Stone Are Placed, And The Road-surface Completed In The Same Manner As For A Macadam Road. The Practice Of Telford Was To Grade The Road-bed Flat, And Then Construct His Pavement Deeper In The Middle Than At The Sides, Using ...

Changing Existing Locations
Changing Existing Locations. The Problem That Arises Oftener Than Any Other In Country-road Location Is That Of Improving Short Stretches Of Road, Where, Owing To Defective Location, The Grades Are Unnecessarily Heavy, The Length Unneces Sarily Great, Or The Ground Over Which The Road May Pass Such As To Make ...

Choice Of Foundation
Choice Of Foundation. It Is Always Important That The Foundation Be Suffi Cient. The Yielding Of The Base Of The Pavement Means Its Destruction. If A Firm And Durable Foundation Be Employed, The Surface May Be Renewed When Necessary Or Changed From One Material To Another Without Disturbing The Base, ...

Compacting The Road
Compacting The Road. The Materials May Be Compacted In A Road Either By Placing Them In Position And Allowing The Traffic To Pass Over Them Or By Rolling With A Steam Or Horse Roller. The First Method By Itself Is Seldom Practiced When It Is Possible To Avoid It. It ...

Comparison Of Routes
Comparison Of Routes. In Selecting A Line For The Construction Of A Road The Principles Already Mentioned In The Early Part Of This Chapter Should Be Had In Mind. The Line Must Be Well Designed To Accommodate The Traffic. It Should Have As Easy Grades, Short Length, And Small Rise ...

Comparison Of Tests
Comparison Of Tests. When It Is Desired To Compare By Tests The Relative Merits Of Various Makes Of Brick, As In The Case Of Com Petitive Tests, It Becomes Necessary To Determine The Comparative Values Of The Results Of The Different Tests And Give To Each A Weight In Proportion ...

Concrete Bases
Concrete Bases. The Best Base For General Use Under Pavements Is Without Doubt That Formed Of Hydraulic Cement Con Crete. A Bed Of Concrete Made Of Good Hydraulic Cement, Well Rammed And Allowed To Set And Harden, Becomes A Practically Monolithic Structure, Nearly Im Pervious To Water And Possessing A ...

Concrete Culverts
Concrete Culverts. Where The Waterway Required Is Too Large To Permit The Use Of Vitrified Pipe, Concrete Culverts Are, In Most Instances, The Most Economical To Use, And In Many Locations They May Be Placed More Cheaply Than The Larger Sizes Of Pipe Culverts. Concrete, Made Of Good Materials, And ...

Concrete Sidewalks
Concrete Sidewalks. Concrete Pavements, When Well Constructed Of Good Materials, Make The Most Satisfactory Of Foot Ways. They Form An Even Surface, Quite Agreeable In Service, And Are Durable And Economical Where Exposed To Considerable Travel. In The Construction Of A Concrete Sidewalk A Base Of Cinders Is Usually Employed, ...

Construction
Construction. Various Methods Have Been Employed For Securing The Funds Necessary For The Construction And Improve Ment Of Country Roads. Many Of The Earlier Roads In This Country Were Toll Roads Built By Private Capital And Kept Up Exclusively By Charges Paid By Travelers. Toll Roads Are Objectionable Because They ...

Construction Of Brick Pavements
Construction Of Brick Pavements. The Work To Be Performed In Laying A Brick Pave Ment, After Grading And Rolling The Road Bed (see Art. 43), Consists In Placing The Foundation; Forming A Cushion Coat Of Sand Over The Foundation; Laying The Bricks Upon The Sand Cushion; Rolling, Or Ramming, The ...

Construction Of Sheet Pavements
Construction Of Sheet Pavements. The Construction Of Asphalt Pavements In This Country Is, In The Main, In The Hands Of Two Or Three Large Corporations, And Methods Of Construction Vary But Little, The Differences In The Various Pavements Being Principally Due To Differences In The Composition Of The Materials Used. ...

Construction Of Stone Block Pavements
Construction Of Stone-block Pavements. Stone-block Pavement For Durable And Effective Service Should Be Placed Upon Very Firm Foundations. Bases Of Concrete Are Usually Employed And Give The Best Results. These Foundations Are Formed As Described In, Art. 47, And Consist Of •a Layer Of Concrete 4 To 8 Inches Thick, ...

Construction Of Wood Pavements
Construction Of Wood Pavements. As Stated In Art. 63, The Older Types Of Wood-block Pavement, In Which The Blocks Were Laid With Open Joints On A Plank Foundation Or On Gravel, Are Prac Tically Obsolete, And Wood Blocks Are Usually Laid With Close Joints Upon Concrete Foundations. This Gives Firm ...

Cost Of Wagon Transportation
Cost Of Wagon Transportation. The Effect Of Bad Roads Upon The Cost Of Wagon Transportation Has Been The Subject Of Much Discussion And Many Estimates Have Been Made Which Have Arrived At Widely Different Conclusions. Many Of These Discussions Have Failed To Take Account Of All The Factors Entering Into ...

Crossings
Crossings. On Streets Paved With A Smooth Hard Surface Which Is Easily Cleaned, Such As Brick Or Asphalt, Special Foot Way Crossings Are Not Usually Required Or Desirable, Unless The Foot Travel Be Very Considerable. On Other Pavements, However, Which Are Apt To Be Rough To Walk Upon Or Muddy ...

Culverts
Culverts. Culverts Are Commonly Required In Road Construction For Carrying Under The Road The Small Streams Which May Be Crossed By The Road, Or Sometimes For Carry Ing The Water Collected In The Gutters Or Ditches On The Upper Side Of The Road To The Lower Side. The Waterway Provided ...

Drainage Of Roads And
Drainage Of Roads And Streets. Surface Drainage Is Always Necessary If The Body Of The Road Is To Be Kept In A Dry Condition, And Is Accom Plished By Having The Surface Of Such Form That Water Falling Upon It Will Quickly Run Into The Gutters. The Necessity For Underdrainage ...

Durability Of Various Surfaces
Durability Of Various Surfaces. The Durability Of A Road Or Pavement Is Dependent Upon So Many Circumstances Connected With Local Con Ditions, The Nature Of The Traffic, Methods Of Con Struction, And Efficiency Of Maintenance, That Any Comparison Of The Various Kinds Of Pavement In This Respect Is Difficult And ...

Earth Roads
Earth Roads. The Maintenance Of An Earth Road Surface In Good Condition Consists In Keeping It Crowned And Smoothed, So That Water Which Falls Upon The Surface Flows Away Immediately Into The Gutters Without Remaining Upon The Road Long Enough To Do Serious Harm In Softening It. If Ruts And ...

Earthworks
Earthworks. Improvements To The Road-bed Of An Existing Coun Try Road May Have For Their Object The Reduction Of Gradient Upon Steep Inclinations By Cutting The Material From The Road-bed And Lowering The Surface Of The Road On The Upper Part Of The Grade, And Filling In Correspondingly On The ...

Examination Of Country
Examination Of Country. For The Purpose Of Obtaining The Requisite Data Upon Which To Base The Location Of A Road, It Is Neces Sary That A Careful Examination Be Made Of The Topo Graphical Features Of The Country Through Which The Line Is To Pass. The Relative Elevations Of The ...

Filling The Joints
Filling The .joints. There Is Much Difference Of Opinion Amongst Munici Pal Engineers Concerning The Best Material To Use In Filling The Joints In A Brick Pavement. The Materials Commonly Employed Are Sand, Portland-cement Grout, And Asphaltic Or Coal-tar Paving-cement. Certain Patent Fillers Of More Or Less The Same Character ...

Footways
Footways. Footways Are Not Required To Bear The Heavy Loads Which Come Upon The Roadway Pavement, But In Streets Of Considerable Travel Are Subjected To A Continual Abrading Action, And For Good Service Are Required To Be Of A Material Which Will Resist Abrasion Well, Of So Uniform A Texture ...

Foundations For Pavements In
Foundations For Pavements. The Roller Should Pass Several Times Over The Road Bed. When Low Places Are Developed, Which Roll Down Below Grade, They Should Be Filled And Rolled Again Until Brought To Proper Grade. Passing The Roller Trans Versely Over Recently Filled Trenches Will Always Produce Depressions Which Require ...

Grade And Cross Section
Grade And Cross Section. As Already Explained In Art. Io, The Drainage Of The Surface Of A Road Is Accomplished By Crowning The Sur Face And Giving It A Proper Longitudinal Slope. Under Drains Will Not Drain Water From The Surface Of The Road, And Unless The Crown Is At ...

Granite And Sandstone Blocks
Granite And Sandstone Blocks. For The Construction Of The Better Class Of Stone Block Pavements, Blocks Of Tough Granite Or Sandstone Are Used, Set, In The Best Work, Upon A Concrete Base, Although Sometimes Placed Upon A Foundation Of Sand Or Gravel. These Pavements When Well Constructed Are About The ...

Gravel Roads
Gravel Roads. In The Improvement Of A Country Road, Where The Construction Of A Good Telford Or Macadam Road Can Not Be Undertaken, A Surface Of Gravel May Frequently Be Used To Advantage, Giving Much Better Results Than Could Be Obtained With The Surface Of Earth. Even A Light Layer ...

Gutters
Gutters. Gutters Are Commonly Formed Of The Same Material As The Roadway Pavement, Which Is Simply Extended To The Curb. In Streets Paved With Brick Or Granite Blocks The Gutter Blocks Are Sometimes Turned Lengthwise Of The Street, As Shown In Fig. 22, For The Purpose Of Facilitat Ing The ...

Healthfulness
Healthfulness. The Effect Of A Pavement Upon The Health Of The Residents Of Its Locality Will Be Affected By The Tendency Of•the Materials Composing It To Decay, By Its Permea Bility, And By Its Degree Of Freedom From Noise And Dust. The Permeability Of A Road Surface Is Important On ...

Improvement
Improvement. The Value Of A Road Improvement To A Community And The Amount Of Money That May Reasonably And Profitably Be Expended In The Construction And Main Tenance Of Common Roads Is A Subject The Discussion Of Which Leads Different Persons To Widely Different Con Clusions, Depending Upon The Point ...

Length Of Road
Length Of Road. Changes In The Length Of A Road Affect All Portions Of The Traffic In The Same Manner, And The Expenditure Of Power And Loss Or Gain In Time Occasioned By Them Are In General Directly Proportional To Their Amounts. The Value Of Any Considerable Saving In Length ...

Location Of Country Roads
Location Of Country Roads. Advisability Of Any Road, And How It Can Be Placed To Give The Greatest Freedom To The Movement Of Travel. The Question Is As To The Value Of The Road To The Gen Eral Community And Its Location To Secure The Greatest Good For The Least ...

Macadam Roads
Macadam Roads. Macadam Road's As Commonly Constructed Consist Of Two Or More Layers Of Broken Stone, Each Layer Being Rolled To A Firm Bearing Before Placing The Next. The Broken Stone Is Usually Placed Directly Upon The Earth Road-bed. In Constructing A Macadamized Roadway, The Road Bed Is .first Brought ...

Maintenance Of Asphalt Pavements
Maintenance Of Asphalt Pavements. To Give Good Service Asphalt Pavements Must Be Kept Clean. On Account Of The Smooth Surface And Absence Of Joints, Cleaning May Be Readily Accomplished; And The Presence Of Dirt, Especially In Wet Weather When It Is Likely To Cause The Surface To Remain Damp, Is ...

Maintenance Of Brick Pavements
Maintenance Of Brick Pavements. The Maintenance Necessary For A Brick Pavement Consists In Keeping It Clean And Carefully Watching It, Especially During The First Year Or Two Years, To See That No Breaks Occur Due To The Use Of Defective Bricks In The Surface Or To Insufficient Support From The ...

Maintenance Of Broken Stone Roads
Maintenance Of Broken-stone Roads. To Maintain A Broken-stone Road In Good Condition It Is Necessary First Of All That It Be Frequently Cleaned Of Mud And Dust, And That The Gutters And Surface Drains Be Kept Open To Insure The Prompt Discharge Of All Water That May Come Upon The ...

Maintenance Of Wood Pavements
Maintenance Of Wood Pavements. The Ordinary Maintenance Of Wood Pavements, Like That Of Most Other Pavements, Consists In Keeping The Pavement Clean And In Repairing From Time To Time Any Small Breaks That May Appear In The Surface Due To Im Perfect Material Or To The Settling Of The Foundation. ...

Miscellaneous Foundations
Miscellaneous Foundations. Brick Foundations. Foundations Of Brick Have Fre Quently Been Used Under Brick Pavements. The Pave Ment In Such Cases Consists Of Two Layers Of Brick, With Sand Between, And Is Known As Double-layer Pavement. These Foundations Are Usually Formed By Placing Upon The Road-bed A Layer Of Sand ...

Miscellaneous Roads
Miscellaneous Roads. Corduroy Roads. In Timbered Country, Where Roads Must Pass Over Wet And Muddy Places, Corduroy Roads Are Sometimes Employed. They Are Built By Laying Logs Side By Side Across The Roadway. By Taking Sufficient Care In Construction To Select The Logs And Even Up The Spaces Between Them ...

Object Of Roads The
Object Of Roads. The Safety Of The Pavement In Use, Its Effect Upon The Health Of Residents Of The Locality, And Its Economic Value Must In Each Case Be Considered. To Adjust To The Best Advantage These Various Ele Ments, Frequently Quite Discordant With Each Other, Is A Matter Which ...

Oiled Roads
Oiled Roads. The Use Of Oil For Hardening The Surfaces Of Earth And Gravel Roads Originated In California, Where It Has Rapidly Extended Into Common Practice. The Use Of Oil Was At First Intended Only For The Purpose Of Laying The Dust, And The Surface Of The Road Was Sprinkled ...

Oiling
Oiling. "oil Shall Then Be Applied As Follows: " The Area To Be Oiled Shall Extend From Curb To Curb Where There Are No Gutters, And Where There Are Gutters Then From Gutter To Gutter, Including All Intersections Of Streets And Alleys, And To The Property Line On Both Sides ...

Ordinary
Ordinary Country Roads May Be As Earth Roads, Gravel Roads, And Broken-stone Roads. The Larger Number Of Common Roads Throughout This Coun Try Belong Of Necessity To The First Class. In A Few Of The More Enterprising Communities The More Important Roads Are Constructed Of Gravel Or Broken Stone. The ...

Petrographic Analysis
Petrographic Analysis. The Following Methods Of Examination Have Been Used By The Office Of Public Roads Of The U. S. Agri Cultural Department, And Are Described By Mr. Edwin C. E. Lord In Bulletin No. 31, August, 1907. "upon Receipt Of The Rock Sample, Which, Accord Ing To The Specification ...

Petrolithic Pavement
Petrolithic Pavement. The Ordinary Oiled Road Consists Of A Light Covering Of Oiled Soil Upon The Road Surface. In Some Instances Oiled Surfaces Are Made 4 To 6 Inches Deep, By Loosen Ing The Soil, Saturating With Oil, And Then Compacting By Rolling To A Firm Surface. Difficulty Has Been ...

Placing The Line
Placing The Line. After The Preliminary Examination Of The Locality Is Complete And The Positions And Elevations Of The Con Trolling Points Of The Line Are Known With Reference To Each Other, The Line Must, Be Selected And Run In Upon The Ground, Or, If The Reconnaissance Is Not Conclusive ...

Purpose Of Foundation
Purpose Of Foundation. The Chief Object Of The Foundation Or Base Of A Pavement Is To Distribute The Concentrated Loads Which Come Upon The Surface Of The Road Over A Greater Area Of The Usually Softer And Weaker Road-bed, In Order That These Loads May Not Produce Indentations In The ...

Rate Of Grade
Rate Of Grade. The Effect Of Any Change In The Ruling Gradient Upon A Road Depends To A Considerable Extent Upon What Portion Of The Traffic May Be Carried In Full Loads. The Lighter Portions Of The Traffic Are Not So Seriously Affected By Heavy Gradients As The Heavy Portions, ...

Resistance To Traction
Resistance To Traction. The Resistance To Traction Of A Vehicle On A Road Surface May Be Divided Into Three Parts: Axle Friction, Rolling Resistance, And Grade Resistance. Axle Friction Varies With The Nature Of The Bearing Surfaces, And For Vehicles Of Similar Construction Is Directly Proportional To The Load. It ...

Rise And Fall
Rise And Fall. By The Amount Of Rise And Fall Is Meant The Total Vertical Height Through Which A Load Must Be Lifted In Passing In Each Direction Over The Road. It Is Distinct From And Independent Of The Rate Of Gradient. The Minimum Amount Of Rise And Fall Is ...

Road Metal
Road Metal. Stone Is Prepared For Use In Road Work By Crushing And Screening. In The Early Days Of Broken-stone Roads, All Stone Was Broken By Hand, And The Roads Were Care Fully Constructed Of Stone Broken To Approximately Uni Form Sizes Without The Addition Of A Binding Material. The ...

Rocks For Road Building
Rocks For Road Building. Properties Required. The Surface Material For Broken Stone Roads Must Bind Together Into A Solid Surface Capable Of Bearing The Loads Which Come Upon It And Of Resisting The Wear Of The Traffic. A Stone To Be Durable In The Surface Of A Road Should Be ...

Roller
Roller. "the Tamping Roller To Be Used In The Execution Of The Work Herein Specified Shall Consist Of A Roller The Outer Surface Of Which Shall Be Studded With Teeth Not Less Than 7 Inches Long And Having A Surface Area Of Not Less Than 4 Square Inches Each, The ...

Safety
Safety. The Safety Of A Road Surface Depends Upon The Foot Hold Afforded By It To Horses Under Normal Conditions, And Also Upon The Degree Of Slipperiness That It May Take In Wet Weather, Or Under The Influence Of Ice And Snow In Winter. A Dry Earth Road In Good ...

Sand Clay Roads
Sand-clay Roads. In Some Of The Southern States Where Other Materials For Surfacing Roads Are Not Available, A Mixture Of Sand And Clay In Proper Proportions Has Been Found A Desir Able Material For This Purpose. In Some Instances The Mixing Of Sand And Clay For Road Work Has Received ...

Sources Of Revenue For
Sources Of Revenue For Street Improvement. Funds Required For The Improvement Of Streets In Cities Are Commonly Derived Either From General Taxes, From Assessment Upon Property In Vicinity Of The Improvement, Or From A Combination Of The Two. In Some Instances Also Special Taxes Are Levied Upon Vehicles, Or Upon ...

Stone Block
Stone-block Pavements Are Commonly Employed' Where The Traffic Is Heavy And A Material Needed Which Will Resist Well Under Wear. Stone For This Purpose Must Possess Sufficient Hard Ness To Resist The Abrasive Action Of Wheels. It Must Be Tough, In Order That It May Not Be Broken By Shocks. ...

Stone Curbs
Stone Curbs. The Curbs Used In Different Places Vary Considerably In Form And Dimensions. Stone Curbs Vary From 4 To 12 Inches In Width And From 8 To 24 Inches In Depth. They Are Usually Employed From 3 To 6 Feet In Length And Set With Close Joints. The Depth ...

Stone Drains
Stone Drains. In Localities Where Stone Suitable For Such Purposes Exists Along A Roadway It Is Common And Often Econ Omical To• Use Stone Drains For Purposes Of Under Drainage. Blind Drains: For Short Lengths, Where It Is Only Necessary To Provide A Permeable Path For A Small Quantity Of ...

Street Grades
Street Grades. The Grades Of City Streets Necessarily Depend Mainly Upon The Topography Of The Site. Wherever Possible, It Is Desirable That Grades Be Uniform Between Cross Streets. In Establishing Grades For New Streets Through Unim Proved Property, They May Usually Be Laid With Refer Ence Only To Obtaining The ...

Street Intersections
Street Intersections. At Intersections The Crown Of The Roadway Pavement On Each Street Should, If Possible, Be Continuous To The Center Of Intersection, In Order To Prevent Vehicles On One Street From Being Subjected To The Jar Incident To Passing Over The Gutter Of The Other. Where A Storm Sewer ...

Street Railway Track
Street-railway Track. Track For Street Railways Upon Paved Streets Should Be Constructed With A View To Offering As Little Obstruc Tion To Ordinary Street Traffic As Possible, While Per Mitting The Ready Operation Of The Railway. These Two Points Are Apt To Conflict, As The Interest Of The Railway Company ...