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Gutters

gutter, blocks, pavement and streets

GUTTERS.

Gutters are commonly formed of the same material as the roadway pavement, which is simply extended to the curb.

In streets paved with brick or granite blocks the gutter blocks are sometimes turned lengthwise of the street, as shown in Fig. 22, for the purpose of facilitat ing the flow of water in the gutter. As already pointed out, however, this has the effect of making a continuous joint between the pavement and gutter, and its utility seems doubtful.

For streets paved with broken stone it is common to employ stone gutters, formed of cobblestones, of narrow flags laid lengthwise of the gutter, or sometimes of rec tangular blocks. Such construction is shown in Fig. 40. On streets paved with wood these gutters may also be frequently employed with advantage, especially where for any reason the gutter is likely to be kept damp. In forming a cobble gutter the stones are usually set upon a layer of sand or gravel after the manner of forming a cobble pavement. They should be firmly bedded and form an even surface.

Cobble gutters are often used on village streets where no curbs are set, and in such locations, where but slight expense is admissible, they are quite satis factory if properly constructed. This method of con struction is illustrated in Fig. 33.

Sometimes in work of this kind a flagstone is used for the bottom of the gutter and the sides are formed of cobble. This is preferable as affording a more free

channel for the flow of the surface drainage.

To obtain satisfactory results it is always necessary that the foundation be of sufficient depth and well compacted in order to prevent the surface becoming uneven by the stones being forced downward into the road-bed in wet weather or through the action of frost. A layer of 6 to Io inches of gravel or sand is usually required.

Where flagstones are used to form the gutter, they should be 3 or 4 inches thick, to to 15 inches wide, as may be required, and about 3 feet long. Care is required in laying that they may have an even bed and be well supported by the foundation.

Gutters of bricks, or of stone blocks, are often used for streets upon which the roadway pavement is asphalt, on account of the liability of the asphalt being injured by dampness. In this case the gutter is constructed by setting the bricks or blocks with their greatest length along the street. They are placed upon a bed of concrete, the same as is used for the foundation under the asphalt surface, and the joints are filled with hydraulic cement mortar, as in constructing brick pavement.