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Roller

road, surface, california and oil

ROLLER.

"The tamping roller to be used in the execution of the work herein specified shall consist of a roller the outer surface of which shall be studded with teeth not less than 7 inches long and having a surface area of not less than 4 square inches each, the roller itself to be of such a weight that the load upon each tooth shall be not less than 300 pounds." Results of the Use of Oil on Roads. As already stated, good results seem to have been obtained in California with the use of oil both for laying dust on roads and for improving the resistance to wear and to the pene tration of water into the road surface. The results obtained depend upon the character of the work and the care used in construction. To secure good results these roads require careful maintenance. The forma tion of chuck holes due to the action of water upon the road is a principal difficulty, and these require prompt repair. A lightly oiled road surface is worn away by travel and water during the rainy season, and must be annually renewed. On the whole the results are reported as satisfactory and the use of oil is largely extending.

California has a dry climate, which is very favorable to this kind of construction. The object of the road improvement is rather to get rid of the dust, and cause the surface of the roads to hold together during the dry season, than to guard against the softening of the roads in wet weather. Under these conditions the use

of oil constitutes a very desirable method of road improvement; while the occurrence of the asphaltic oil, which may be obtained at law cost, makes possible economical construction.

In considering the advisability of extending such methods to other parts of the country, the differences of climate and of the purpose of road improvement should be taken into account, as well as the character of available materials. Some method of dealing with dust, other than that of sprinkling with water, is annually growing more important, while the breaking up, or raveling, of road surfaces during dry weather is a serious difficulty, particularly where there is siderable automobile travel. The parafiine oils of the Eastern states may act quite differently from the California asphaltic oils, while the greater amount of rainfall and differences in temperature will probably make oiled construction much more difficult to maintain in other parts of the country than in California.

For California the value of these materials has been fully demonstrated, although experience is likely to modify the methods of construction used. For other localities, the value both of materials and methods can be determined only by experiment.