Home >> Textbook-on-roads-and-pavements-1908 >> Subdrainage to Wood Blocks

Textbook on Roads and Pavements by Frederick Putman Spalding (1908)

Subdrainage
Subdrainage. The Drainage Of The Subsoil Under A Road Is Intended To Lower The Level Of Ground Water In Wet Weather And Prevent Water From Sub-surface Sources Reaching The Road-bed. The Necessity For Subdrainage, And The Method To Be Employed In Any Case, Depends Upon Whether The Soil Over Which ...

Surface Course
Surface Course. Transportation. The Materials For The Binder And Surface Of Asphalt Pavements Must Be Carried From The Mixing Plant To The Street In Some Form Of Truck Or Wagon Which Will Admit Of The Materials Being Delivered With Small Loss Of Temperature. Some Form Of Dump Wagon Is Commonly ...

Surface Mixtures
Surface Mixtures. The Material Commonly Employed For The Surfaces Of Asphalt Pavements Consists Of A Mixture Of Asphalt Cement, Powdered Limestone, And Sand. The Mixtures Used In Different Places Have Varied Considerably In Character, According To The Nature Of The Materials Available And The Amount And Consistency Of The Bitumen ...

Systems Of Road Management
Systems Of Road Management. Several Different Systems For Managing The Work Of Constructing And Repairing Country Roads Have Been Proposed Or Are In Use In Various Places. These Systems Differ In The Placing Of The Control Of The Roads And In The Methods Adopted For Providing Funds. The Control Of ...

Tests For Asphalt Cement
Tests For Asphalt Cement. For The Purpose Of Controlling The Character Of The Surface Mixtures To Be Used Upon Asphalt Pave Ments, Tests Are Commonly Made Of The Asphalt Cement, As Well As Of The Surface Mixture Itself. In Testing Asphalt Cement The Total Amount Of Bitumen Is Usually Determined; ...

Tests For Paving Brick
Tests For Paving-brick. To Determine The Probable Durability Of Brick Designed For Use In Paving, Mechanical Tests May Be Applied Which Will Show The Relative Rank Of Different Samples In Their Most Important Characteristics. It Is, However, A Matter Of Considerable Difficulty To Set A Standard To Which The Brick ...

Tests For Wood Blocks
Tests For Wood Blocks. Specification Requirements For Wood Blocks Vary Widely In Different Places Throughout The Country And No Systematic Method Has Been Adopted For The Inspection And Testing Of The Blocks. A Number Of Tests Have Been Proposed For Use Both At The Plant Where The Blocks Are Treated ...

Thickness Of Road Covering
Thickness Of 'road-covering. The Thickness Necessary For A Road-covering Depends Upon The Amount Of The Traffic It Is To Bear And Upon The Nature Of The Foundation Afforded By The Road-bed. Under A Heavy Traffic It Is Advisable To Make The Road Covering Heavier Than Might Be Allowable For Lighter ...

Tile Drains
Tile Drains. Tile Drains For Road Drainage Are Constructed In The Same Manner As For Land Drainage. Ordinary Porous Tiles Are Used As In Farm Drainage, Sizes From 4 To 8 Or 10 Inches In Diameter Being Commonly Employed For This Purpose. They Are Usually In Lengths Of Slightly More ...

Tractive Power Of Horses
Tractive Power Of Horses. The Loads That A Horse Can Pull Upon Various Road Surfaces Will Not Necessarily Be Proportional To The Resistance Offered By The Surface To Traction, As The Tractive Force That The Horse Can Exert Depends Upon The Foothold Afforded By The Surface. The Ability Of A ...

Transverse Test
Transverse Test. The Transverse Strength Is Tested By Supporting The Brick Upon Two Knife-edges Near Its Ends And Bringing A Load Through A Third Knife-edge Upon The Middle Of The Brick. The Test May Be Made Upon Any Ordinary Testing-machine By Providing The Necessary Knife Edges, But, Like The Compression ...

Treatment Of Wood Blocks
Treatment Of Wood Blocks. The Most Serious Objection Commonly Raised To The Older Type Of Wood Pavement Is That Wood, Being Porous, Absorbs Moisture Readily, And Is Thus Liable Both To Destruction Through Decay And To Become Injurious To Health. Various Methods Were Therefore Proposed For Rendering The Blocks Less ...

Trees For Streets
Trees For Streets. It Is Always Desirable, Wherever Possible, To Have Streets, At Least Those Devoted To Residential Purposes, Lined With Rows Of Trees Upon Each Side, Both For The Purpose Of Giving Shade And To Add To The Beauty Of Appearance Of The Street. The Most Satisfactory Way Of ...

Trenches In Streets
Trenches In Streets. The Opening Of Trenches For Water, Gas, And Sewer Pipes In The Streets Is Perhaps The Greatest Cause Of De Struction Of Pavements To Be Found In The Average City. This Is Especially True Of The Smaller Cities, Where Wear From Traffic Is Not Excessive. In Constructing ...

Trinidad Asphalt
Trinidad Asphalt. The Most Important Source Of Supply Of Asphalt For Street Pavements In The United States Is That Of The Island Of Trinidad, W. I. This Asphalt Is Known As Lake Asphalt Or Land Asphalt, According To The Source From Which It Is Obtained. Lake Asphalt Is Found In ...

Types Of Wood Block Pavement
Types Of Wood-block Pavement. The Disadvantage Of Lacking Firmness As Well As Of Being Perishable, Although In Some Instances Good Results Have Been Obtained By Its Use. The Construction Of A Pavement Of This Type Is Shown In Fig. 25. Blocks Of Varying Sizes Are Employed, Being Set In Contact ...

Whereas
Whereas, From The Experimental Work Done So Far By This Commission, Or By Others So Far As Is Known To Us, In The Application Of The Cross-breaking And Crushing Tests To Paving-bricks, It Is Not Possible To Show Any Close Relationship Between The Qualities Necessary For A Good Paving Material ...

Width And Cross Section
Width And Cross-section. The Width Of City Streets Is Important Both On Account Of Its Influence Upon The Ease With Which Traffic May Be Conducted, And Because Of Its Effect Upon The Health And Comfort Of The People, By Determining The Amount Of Light And Air Which May Penetrate Into ...

Width Of Tires
Width Of Tires. The Effect Of The Width Of Wheel Tires Upon The Resistance To Traction Has Already Been Mentioned In Art. 2. For Ordinary Roads, Not In Soft Condition, Tractive Resistance Is Somewhat Less For Wide Than For Narrow Tires. This Difference, While Not Usually Very Great, Is Sufficient ...

Wood Blocks
Wood Blocks. Wood-block Pavements Are Constructed Of Blocks Set With The Fibers Vertical, So That Wear Comes Upon The Ends Of The Fibers And Has No Tendency To Split Pieces Off From The Blocks. These Blocks Are Usually From 6 To 12 Inches In Length, 3 To 4 Inches In ...