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cut, ribs, plate, chuck, loin and sirloin

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BEEF: is the most important of meats, the chief staple of the butcher and the lead ing food article in the average household.

It is a curious and in some respects an unfortunate fact that in different parts of the country there are many names for the same "cut," but Diagrams I and II on page 5T, adapted from a recent Bulletin of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, illustrate a very widely accepted division of a whole beef and show the relative positions of the cuts in the animal and in a dressed side.

The Neck Piece is frequently cut so as to include more of the Chuck than is repre sented by the diagram.

The Shoulder Clod is usually cut without bone. The Shoulder (not indicated iu the diagram) includes more or less of the shoulder blade and of the upper end of the Foreshank. Shoulder Steak is cut from the Chuck.

In many localities, the Plate is made to include all the parts of the forequarters designated on the diagrams as Brisket, Cross-ribs, Plate and Navel, and different por tions of the Plate as thus cut are spoken of as the "brisket end of plate" and "navel end of plate." This part of the animal is largely used for corning.

The Ribs are frequently divided into "first" cut, the first three ribs constituting the choicest "prime" ribs of beef, "second" cut and "third" cut, the last-named lying nearest the Chuck and being slightly less desirable than the former.

The Chuck is sometimes sub-divided in a similar manner, the third cut being nearest the neck.

The names applied to different portions of the Loin vary considerably in different localities. With the Flip it is generally known as "hip-loin." The part nearest the ribs is frequently called "small end of loin" or "small end sirloin" or "short steak." The other end of the loin is called "thick end sirloin" or "sirloin." Porter-house steaks are cut from the "thick end." The very tender strip of meat known as the "tenderloin" lies under or inside the hip-loin, being thickest at the hip part and gradually tapering off to a very narrow piece at the "small end." It is not uncommon to find the Flank cut so as to include more of the loin than is indicated in the figures, in which case the upper portion is called "flank-steak."

The larger part of the flank is frequently corned, as is also the case with the Rump.

In some markets, the Rump is cut so as to include a portion of the loin, which is then sold as "rump steak." The portion of the Round on the inside of the leg is regarded as more tender than that on the outside, and is consequently preferred to the latter. As the leg lies upon the butcher's table this inside of the round is usually on the upper, or top, side, and is therefore called "top round." The lower diagrams, (III, IV) show two other standard divisions—No. III, a method widely accepted by Chicago and Kansas City wholesale butchers, and Nos. IV and V a popular New York wholesale division.

The following table explains the separation shown on illustrations Nos. IV and V.

Every normal steer has thirteen ribs. The general eastern rib cut gives eight ribs, an "8-rib roast"—one rib remaining on the hindquarters and four on the chuck —but this division is subject to wide variations at the wish of the purchasing retailer.

See also the four Color Pages of Rib Cuts, Sirloin Cuts. Steaks, etc.—alternate leaves commencing with that opposite page 50.

The best beef is that of a young stall-fed, corn-fed steer. It should be of fine, smooth texture and bright fresh red color intermixed with fine streaks of white fat. It should retain the impression of the finger after it is removed—this is important, as old or tough beef is elastic to the touch. Meat that is pale or deep purple in color, that is wet and flabby, or has a sickly smell, should be carefully avoided.

If the fat (of a healthy specimen) is yellow, the beef may still be of good quality —it is not from a stall-fed animal, but it may be a fine grass-fed specimen matured under specially favorable conditions—but if, as is generally the case, the fat is yellow from oil-cake feeding it has been obtained at the expense of the best flavor of the meat.

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